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Mount everest facts primary homework help

Mount Everest facts for kids

Mount Everest is the highest mountain on Earth. Mount Everest is in the Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world. It is about 8,848.00 metres (29,028.87 ft) high.

Its peak is on the border of Nepal and China. It is above the Death Zone where the air is too thin for a human being to live, so usually compressed gas tanks with different gas mixes for different altitudes are used when climbing. The Death Zone refers to the parts of Mount Everest that are above 7,600 metres (24,900 ft) above sea level.

Two other mountains also can be named as the “highest” mountains – the Hawaiian volcano Mauna Loa on Hawaii island is the highest mountain measured from the base underwater to the summit (more than 11 kilometres), and the summit of Mount Chimborazo is the fixed point on Earth which is the greatest distance from the center. This is because of the shape of the Earth: the circumference around the Equator is greater than around the poles.

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Everest Base Camp

“Everest Base Camp” is used to mean the two base camps on opposite sides of Mount Everest. South Base Camp is in Nepal at an altitude of 5,364 metres (17,598 ft). North Base Camp is in Tibet at 5,150.00 meters (16,896.33 ft). These camps are simple campsite shelters at the bottom (or base) of the mountain. They are used by mountain climbers during their journey up or down the mountain. Supplies are provided there and climbers rest, heal and make trip preparations.

South Base Camp is used when climbing up the southeast ridge. North Base Camp is used when climbing up the northeast ridge.

Supplies are shipped to the South Base Camp by Sherpas or porters, and with the help of animals, usually yaks. The North Base Camp has vehicle access (at least in the summer months). Climbers usually rest at base camp for several days for their bodies to get used to the thin air of high altitudes.

This reduces the risks and severity of altitude sickness.

Climate

Mount Everest has a very cold and snowy climate. Winds can speed up to 177 mph (285 km/h). The coldest month is January with a high of −74 °F (−59 °C) and the warmest month in mount everest is July with a high of −10 °F (−23 °C). Because of climate change, the glaciers around Mount Everest may disappear over the next few decades.

Climate data for Mount Everest
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) -36
(-33)
-35
(-31)
-32
(-26)
-31
(-24)
-25
(-13)
-20
(-4)
-18
(-0)
-18
(-0)
-21
(-6)
-27
(-17)
-30
(-22)
-34
(-29)
-27.3
(-17.1)

History

Mt. Everest, seen from Tingri, a small village on the Tibetan plateau at around 4,050 metres (13,290 ft) above sea level.

A survey of India in 1856 recorded Everest. It was called Peak XV. This first published height was 8,840 m (29,000 ft). Everest was given its official English name in 1865 by the Royal Geographical Society.

British people began exploring the area around Mount Everest in 1921. The first expedition to try to climb to the top of Everest was in 1922. On June 8th, 1924, George Leigh Mallory and climbing partner Andrew Irvine tried to climb to the summit of Mount Everest. They disappeared into the fog and were not seen again until Mallory’s dead body was found by Conrad Anker in 1999.

The top of Mount Everest was first reached in May 1953 by the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and the New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary.

In March 2020, Nepal closed the mountain to climbing. This was part of the effort to stop the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.

Sherpas

Sherpas are the local people who live near the foot of Mount Everest. For the Sherpas, Mount Everest is a sacred mountain and before they climb Mount Everest they always do a sacrificial offering.

Flora and fauna

There is very little native flora or fauna on Everest. A moss grows at 6,480 metres (21,260 ft) on Mount Everest. It may be the highest altitude plant species. An alpine cushion plant called Arenaria is known to grow below 5,500 metres (18,000 ft) in the region.

Jumping spider has been found at elevations as high as 6,700 metres (22,000 ft), possibly making it the highest confirmed non-microscopic permanent resident on Earth. It lurks in crevices and may feed on frozen insects that have been blown there by the wind. There is a high likelihood of microscopic life at even higher altitudes.

Birds, such as the bar-headed goose, have been seen flying at the higher altitudes of the mountain, while others, such as the chough, have been spotted as high as the South Col at 7,920 metres (25,980 ft). Yellow-billed choughs have been seen as high as 7,900 metres (26,000 ft) and bar-headed geese migrate over the Himalayas. In 1953, George Lowe (part of the expedition of Tenzing and Hillary) said that he saw bar-headed geese flying over Everest’s summit.

Yaks are often used to haul gear for Mount Everest climbs. They can haul 100 kg (220 pounds), have thick fur and large lungs. One common piece of advice for those in the Everest region is to be on the higher ground when around yaks and other animals, as they can knock people off the mountain if standing on the downhill edge of a trail. Other animals in the region include the Himalayan tahr which is sometimes eaten by the snow leopard. The Himalayan black bear can be found up to about 4,300 metres (14,000 ft) and the red panda is also present in the region. One expedition found a surprising range of species in the region including a pika and ten new species of ants.

Images for kids

Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas above 1,600 m with height colour coded

Mount everest facts primary homework help

How are mountains measured?

Mountains are generally measured from sea level, however there are infact three ways a mountain can be measured:

  1. From sea level to peak
  2. From base to peak
  3. From the distance from the center of the earth to the peak of the mountain.

The Eight-Thousanders
Mountains taller than 8,000 metres

The World’s Tallest Mountain

As mountains are generally measured from sea level, Mount Everest 29,035 ft (8,850m) is considered to be king. However, there is a difference between the highest and tallest.

What is the difference between highest and tallest?

The peak of the highest mountain is the furthest away from sea level.

The peak of the tallest mountain is the furthest away from the base of the mountain.

What is the highest mountain in the world?

At 29,035 ft (8,850m), Everest is the highest mountain in the world. Everest is 29,035 feet above sea level.

What is the tallest mountain in the world?

Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain on Earth. Measured from top to its base below sea level, Mauna Kea beats Everest by 4,436 ft. (over 3/4 of a mile ).

Did you know?

Although Mount Everest, at 29,035 ft (8,850m) tall, is often called the tallest mountain; Mauna Kea, an inactive volcano on the island of Hawaii, is actually taller. Only 13,796 feet of Mauna Kea stands above sea level, however, if you measure it from its base, which is below sea level, it is 33,465 feet. If you stand Mauna Kea and Mount Everest next to each other, Mount Kea would be 4,436 feet taller!

Mount Everest is stll growing!
Mount Everest (all all the other mountains in Himalayas) are still growing higher, at a rate of about 2.4 in/6.1cm per year, as the Indian Tectonic Plate slides north under the Eurasian Plate. That means in the last 26,000 years the Himalayans have risen almost a mile!

Over 8,000 metres tall

The eight-thousanders are the fourteen mountains on Earth that are higher than 8,000 metres (26,427 feet) measured from sea level. They are all located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia.

Mountains

A mountain is something that’s part of the land, but that rises above everything else. Mountains can join up with other mountains to make up a range.

Mountains are very rocky and difficult to grow things on. Also, the higher the mountain goes up, the colder it gets – this means different kinds of plants and animals might live at the top of a mountain than at the bottom, depending on just how high it is.

Top 10 facts

  1. Most mountains are formed when things happen inside the Earth to push rocks up – the longer this happens, the higher the rocks are pushed, and the higher the mountains can be.
  2. While some mountains are getting taller, you can’t see them grow. It takes a very, very long time for mountains to form.
  3. The top of a mountain is called the summit.
  4. It means two different things to say how high a mountain is and how tall it is – measure from sea level to summit to find out how high a mountain is, and measure base to summit to find out how tall it is.
  5. Some very tall mountains aren’t very high because a lot of the base is under the ocean. Some mountains are even completely underwater!
  6. The highest mountain in the world is Mount Everest in Nepal – it’s 8,850 metres high!
  7. The tallest mountain in the world is Mauna Kea in Hawaii, USA – its base is below sea level, and when you measure from base to summit it’s over 10,000 meters tall.
  8. The highest mountain in the UK is Ben Nevis in Scotland – it’s 1,344 metres high.
  9. There are five different types of mountains – fold, fault-block, dome, volcanic and plateau.
  10. Living on mountains is difficult because air gets thinner and colder the higher you go up. Different species of plants and animals can be found at different heights because they’ve had to adapt to the special conditions.

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Did you know?

  • The top of a mountain is called the summit, and the bottom is called the base.
  • Mountins are built by the same forces that cause earthquakes.
  • Some mountains get a little bit higher every year, and some even get a little bit shorter. In time all mountains fade, worn away where the rocks are exposed to the weather. New mountains are formed by the constant movements of the Earth’s crust.
  • A group of mountains is called a mountain range.
  • The highest mountain range in the world is the Himalayas in Asia.
  • The longest mountain range in the world is the Andes in South America.
  • Weather changes a lot on mountains. For example, it can be raining at the top but not at the bottom!
  • Some of the most common plants you can find on mountains are conifers (a type of evergreen tree).

Have a look through the gallery and see if you can spot all of the following:

  • A map showing where the Pennines are
  • The Rocky Mountains in Canada and the USA
  • Ben Nevis
  • The Himalayas
  • Mount Everest
  • The Pyrenees
  • The Alps
  • An Alpine building!
  • Mountains in Scotland
  • Snowdonia

Gallery

About

Mountains are formed when huge areas of land hit each other. The surface of Earth is made up of lots of different sections called tectonic plates, and mountains can be formed in different ways when these plates collide or when magma can get from the centre of the earth up to the surface.

There are five types of mountains:

  1. Fold (or, Folded)
  • This is the most common type of mountain. It’s called ‘fold’ because when the tectonic plates collide, the edges crumple as they are pushed together and the rock of the Earth’s surface is pushed up to create mountains. The Himalayas are fold mountains.
  1. Fault-block (or, Block)
  • When cracks in the Earth’s surface open up, large chucks of rock can be pushed up while others are pushed down. This creates mountains with a long slope on one side, and a sharp drop on the other. The Sierra Nevada mountains in California, USA are fault-block mountains.
  1. Dome
  • Dome mountains are smooth and round-looking. They are formed when magma from in between the Earth’s crust and mantle gets pushed up, but doesn’t ever flow out – so, all the magma makes the land bubble up like a balloon. Bear Butte in South Dakota, USA is an example of a dome mountain.
  1. Volcanic
  • Volcanic mountains are formed around volcanoes, which are vents in the Earth’s top layer that let through magma from between the crust and the mantle layers. Mountains are made of ash and cooled lava. Mauna Loa in Hawaii, USA is the largest active volcano in the world.
  1. Plateau
  • Plateau mountains are different from the other mountain types because they haven’t formed because of rock or magma being pushed up. Instead, they’ve formed because of materials being taken away through erosion, which has left deep valleys or gorges next to high cliffs. The Columbia Plateau in the Northwest USA is an example of this type of mountain.

Mountain habitats have a lot of variety. Because mountains are mostly rock, there isn’t much soil for growing things and the trees plants that do grow there are able to thrive in the rocky conditions. You can also find different plants and animals the higher you climb up a mountain, because temperatures get cooler. This also means that there is more rain at the top of a mountain than at the bottom. This is because hot air rises, but as it rises it cools down – as it cools down, it loses moisture and has to drop it off somewhere along the way up. If it’s cold enough, this moisture will fall as snow rather than rain. You can tell just how cold it is at the top of a mountain by looking at how much snow you can see at the summit. Some mountains are so high that it’s too cold for anything to grow at the top, and there is less oxygen at very high altitudes. Often all the trees stop at about the same altitude and the mountain is bare above that apart from scrub and grass – this altitude is called the tree line.

With conditions like that, living on mountains can be very challenging for both animals and people. Animals that live on mountains are used to the cold temperatures and the different types of plants that grow there. These are some of the animals that live on mountains:

  • Brown bear
  • Coyote
  • Snow leopard
  • Bighorn sheep
  • Wolverine
  • Mountain hare
  • Ibex
  • Great grey owl
  • Golden eagle

The highest mountains in each continent are:

  • Europe – Mount Elbrus (Russia)
  • Asia – Mount Everest (Nepal)
  • Australia – Mount Kosciuszko
  • Antarctica – Vinson Massif
  • South America – Aconcagua (Argentina)
  • North America – Mount McKinley (United States of America)
  • Africa – Kilimanjaro (Tanzania)

Some famous mountain ranges around the world are:

  • The Himalayas, Asia
  • The Rocky Mountains, North America
  • The Andes, South America
  • The Ural Mountains, Europe
  • The Alps, Europe
  • The Pyrenees, Europe

The highest mountains in the countries of the UK are:

  • Ben Nevis in Scotland (which is also the highest in all of the UK)
  • Mount Snowdon in Wales
  • Scafell Pike in England
  • Slieve Donard in Northern Ireland

Mountain words to know

Altitude – a measurement of distance, going up
Erosion – when wind or water sweeps away rock or soil from one place on the Earth’s surface to another
Gorge – a narrow valley, usually with a stream or river running through it
Mountain range – a group of mountains that form a chain or cluster
Slope – the slanted side of a mountain
Summit – the highest point on a mount
Tectonic plates – large pieces of rock that make up the Earth’s surface
Valley – low ground in between mountains