How To Write An A-Grade Literature Review:
Quality research is about building onto the existing work of others, “standing on the shoulders of giants”, as Newton put it. The literature review chapter of your dissertation or thesis is where you synthesise this prior work and lay the foundation for your own research. It’s no surprise then that it’s a critically important chapter.
In this post, I’ll show you exactly how to write a literature review in three straightforward steps, so you can conquer this vital chapter (the smart way).
But first, the “why”…
Before we get started on HOW to write the literature review chapter, we’ve got to look at the WHY. To put it bluntly, if you don’t understand the real purpose of this chapter, there’s no way you can pull it off well.
So, what exactly is the purpose of the literature review process? There are at least four core functions:
- For you to gain an understanding (and demonstrate this understanding) of where the research is at currently, what the key arguments, conflicts, etc are.
- For you to identify the gap(s) in the literature and then use this as justification for your research topic.
- To help you build a theoretical framework for empirical testing (if applicable to your research topic).
- To inform your methodological choices (i.e. see what methods were used in similar studies) and help you source tried and tested questionnaires (for interviews) and measurement instruments (for surveys).
Most students understand the first point but don’t give any thought to the rest. To get the most from the literature review process, you must keep all four points front of mind as you review the literature (more on this,
shortly), or you’ll land up with a wonky foundation.
Right – with the WHY out the way, let’s move on to the HOW. As mentioned above, writing your literature review is a process, which I’ll break down into three steps:
- Finding the most suitable literature (treasure hunting).
- Understanding, distilling and organising the literature.
- Planning and writing up your literature review.
Importantly, you must complete steps one and two before you start writing up your chapter. I know it’s very tempting, but don’t try to kill two birds with one stone and write as you read. You’ll invariably end up wasting huge amounts of time re-writing and re-shaping, or you’ll just land up with a disjointed, hard to digest mess. Instead, you need to read first and distil the information, then plan and execute the writing. Trust me on this one!
How To Write A Literature Review
- How to use Google Scholar to find key literature
- How to “snowball” journal articles to go deeper
- Where to find past dissertations & theses to “scavenge” from
- How to log all your reference information in one place
- How to building an organised, scannable catalogue
- How to digesting & synthesise your literature to get the “big picture”
- How to plan out your chapter structure/outline
- How to write up your literature review
Step 1: Find the relevant literature
Naturally, the first step in the literature review journey is to hunt down the existing research that’s relevant to your topic. While you probably already have a decent base of this from your research proposal, you need to expand on this substantially in the dissertation or thesis itself. Essentially, you need to be looking for any existing literature that potentially helps you answer your research question (or develop it, if that’s not yet pinned down). So, you need to put on your hunting cap.
There are numerous ways to find relevant literature, but I’ll cover my top four tactics here. I’d suggest combining all four methods to ensure that nothing slips past you:
Method 1 – Google Scholar Scrubbing
Google’s academic search engine, Google Scholar, is a great starting point as it provides a good high-level view of the relevant journal articles for whatever keyword you throw at it. Most valuably, it tells you how many times each article has been cited, which gives you an idea of how credible (or at least, popular) it is. Some articles will be free to access, while others will require an account, which brings us to the next method.
Method 2 – University Database Scrounging
Generally, universities provide students with access to an online library, which provides access to many (but not all) of the major journals.
So, if you find an article using Google Scholar that requires paid access (which is quite likely), search for that article in your university’s database – if it’s listed there, you’ll have access. Note that, generally, the search engine capabilities of these databases are poor, so make sure you search for the exact article name, or you might not find it.
Method 3 – Journal Article Snowballing
At the end of every academic journal article, you’ll find a list of references. As with any academic writing, these references are the building blocks of the article, so if the article is relevant to your topic, there’s a good chance a portion of the referenced works will be too. Do a quick scan of the titles and see what seems relevant, then search for the relevant ones in your university’s database.
Method 4 – Dissertation Scavenging
Similar to Method 3 above, you can leverage other students’ dissertations. All you have to do is skim through literature review chapters of existing dissertations related to your topic and you’ll find a gold mine of potential literature. Usually, your university will provide you with access to previous students’ dissertations, but you can also find a much larger selection in the following databases:
Keep in mind that dissertations and theses are not as academically sound as published, peer-reviewed journal articles (because they’re written by students, not professionals), so be sure to check the credibility of any sources you find using this method. You can do this by assessing the citation count of any given article in Google Scholar. If you need help with assessing the credibility of any article, or with finding relevant research in general, you can chat with one of our Research Specialists.
Alright – with a good base of literature firmly under your belt, it’s time to move onto the next step.
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Step 2: Log, catalogue and synthesise
Once you’ve built a little treasure trove of articles, it’s time to get reading and start digesting the information – what does it all mean?
While I present steps one and two (hunting and digesting) as sequential, in reality, it’s more of a back and forth tango – you’ll read a little, then have an idea, spot a new citation, or a new potential variable, and then go back to searching for articles. This is perfectly natural – through the reading process, your thoughts will develop, new avenues might crop up, directional adjustments might arise. This is, after all, one of the main purposes of the literature review process (i.e. to familiarise yourself with the current state of research in your field).
As you’re working through your treasure chest, it’s essential that you simultaneously start organising the information. There are three aspects to this:
- Logging reference information
- Building an organised catalogue
- Distilling and synthesising the information
I’ll discuss each of these below:
2.1 – Log the reference information
As you read each article, you should add it to your reference management software. I usually recommend Mendeley for this purpose (see the Mendeley 101 video below), but you can use whichever software you’re comfortable with. Most importantly, make sure you load EVERY article you read into your reference manager, even if it doesn’t seem very relevant at the time.
2.2 – Build an organised catalogue
In the beginning, you might feel confident that you can remember who said what, where, and what their main arguments were. Trust me, you won’t. If you do a thorough review of the relevant literature (as you must!), you’re going to read many, many articles, and it’s simply impossible to remember who said what, when, and in what context. Also, without the bird’s eye view that a catalogue provides, you’ll miss connections between various articles, and have no view of how the research developed over time. Simply put, it’s essential to build your own catalogue of the literature.
I would suggest using Excel to build your catalogue, as it allows you to run filters, colour code and sort – all very useful when your list grows large (which it will). How you lay your spreadsheet out is up to you, but I’d suggest you have the following columns (at minimum):
- Author, date, title – Start with three columns containing this core information. This will make it easy for you to search for titles with certain words, order research by date, or group by author.
- Categories or keywords – You can either create multiple columns, one for each category/theme and then tick the relevant categories, or you can have one column with keywords.
- Key arguments/points – Use this column to succinctly convey the essence of the article, the key arguments and implications thereof for your research.
- Context – Note the socioeconomic context in which the research was undertaken. For example: US-based, respondents aged 25-35, lower- income, etc. This will be useful for making an argument about gaps in the research.
- Methodology – Note which methodology was used and why. Also note any issues you feel arise due to the methodology. Again, you can use this to make an argument about gaps in the research.
- Quotations – Note down any quoteworthy lines you feel might be useful later.
- Notes – Make notes about anything not already covered. For example, linkages to or disagreements with other theories, questions raised but unanswered, shortcomings or limitations, and so forth.
If you’d like, you can try out Grad Coach’s free Excel template here (see screenshot below).
2.3 – Digest and synthesise
Most importantly, as you work through the literature and build your catalogue, you need to synthesise all the information in your own mind – how does it all fit together? Look for links between the various articles and try to develop a bigger picture view of the state of the research. Some important questions to ask yourself are:
- What answers does the existing research provide to my own research questions?
- Which points do the researchers agree (and disagree) on?
- How has the research developed over time?
- Where do the gaps in the current research lie?
To help you develop a big-picture view and synthesise all the information, you might find mind mapping software such as Freemind useful. Alternatively, if you’re a fan of physical note-taking, investing in a large whiteboard might work for you.
Step 3: Outline and write it up!
Once you’re satisfied that you have digested and distilled all the relevant literature in your mind, it’s time to put pen to paper (or rather, fingers to keyboard). There are two steps here – outlining and writing:
3.1 – Draw up your outline
Having spent so much time reading, it might be tempting to just start writing up without a clear structure in mind. However, it’s critically important to decide on your structure and develop a detailed outline before you write anything. Your literature review chapter needs to present a clear, logical and an easy to follow narrative – and that requires some planning. Don’t try to wing it!
Naturally, you won’t always follow the plan to the letter, but without a detailed outline, you’re more than likely going to end up with a disjointed pile of waffle, and then you’re going to spend a far greater amount of time re-writing, hacking and patching. The adage, “measure twice, cut once” is very suitable here.
In terms of structure, the first decision you’ll have to make is whether you’ll lay out your review thematically (into themes) or chronologically (by date/period). The right choice depends on your topic, research objectives and research questions, which we discuss in this article.
Once that’s decided, you need to draw up an outline of your entire chapter in bullet point format. Try to get as detailed as possible, so that you know exactly what you’ll cover where, how each section will connect to the next, and how your entire argument will develop throughout the chapter. Also, at this stage, it’s a good idea to allocate rough word count limits for each section, so that you can identify word count problems before you’ve spent weeks or months writing!
3.2 – Get writing
With a detailed outline at your side, it’s time to start writing up (finally!). At this stage, it’s common to feel a bit of writer’s block and find yourself procrastinating under the pressure of finally having to put something on paper. To help with this, remember that the objective of the first draft is not perfection – it’s simply to get your thoughts out of your head and onto paper, after which you can refine them. The structure might change a little, the word count allocations might shift and shuffle, you might add or remove a section – that’s all okay. Don’t worry about all this on your first draft – just get your thoughts down on paper.
Once you’ve got a full first draft (however rough it may be), step away from it for a day or two (longer if you can) and then come back at it with fresh eyes. Pay particular attention to the flow and narrative – does it fall fit together and flow from one section to another smoothly? Now’s the time to try to improve the linkage from each section to the next, tighten up the writing to be more concise, trim down word count and sand it down into a more digestible read.
Once you’ve done that, give your writing to a friend or colleague who is not a subject matter expert and ask them if they understand the overall discussion. The best way to assess this is to ask them to explain the chapter back to you. This technique will give you a strong indication of which points were clearly communicated and which weren’t. If you’re working with Grad Coach, this is a good time to have your Research Specialist review your chapter.
Then, tighten it up and send it off to your supervisor for comment. Some might argue that you should be sending your work to your supervisor sooner than this (indeed your university might formally require this), but in my experience, supervisors are extremely short on time (and often patience), so, the more refined your chapter is, the less time they’ll waste on addressing basic issues (which you know about already) and the more time they’ll spend on valuable feedback that will increase your mark-earning potential.
Recap: How to write a literature review
In this article, we’ve covered how to research and write up a winning literature review chapter. Let’s do a quick recap of the key points:
Literature Review Software
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Advanced literature review software
for Windows and Mac.
MAXQDA is the best choice for a comprehensive literature review. It works with a wide range of data types and offers powerful tools for literature review, such as reference management, qualitative, vocabulary, and text analysis tools, and more.
All-in-one Literature Review Software
Use MAXQDA to manage your entire research project. Easily import data from texts, interviews, focus groups, PDFs, web pages, spreadsheets, articles, e-books, and even tweets. Organize your data in groups, link relevant quotes to each other, and share and compare work with your team members. Your project file stays flexible and you can expand and refine your category system as you go to suit your research.
Easily import your research data
MAXQDA can work with all reference management programs that are able to export their data-bases in RIS-format. Like MAXQDA, these reference managers use project files, containing all collected bibliographic information, such as author, title, links to websites, keywords, abstracts, full texts and other information. Upon import, all documents will be automatically pre-coded to facilitate search and retrieval at a later stage.
Capture your ideas
Great ideas will often occur to you while you’re doing your literature review. Memos, are a great place for storing your ideas, such as research questions and objectives or use memos for paraphrasing passages into your own words. Particularly useful for literature reviews are free memos written during the course of work on the review from which passages can be copied and inserted into the final text.
Find what you’re looking for
With MAXQDA’s Lexical Search you can search and automatically code interesting keywords, such as important concepts for your literature review. The automatically created document variables can be used for searching and retrieving certain segments or use MAXQDA’ powerful Coding Query, which allows you to analyze the combination of activated codes in different ways.
Aggregate your literature review
Never lose track of the bigger picture with MAXQDA’s overview and summary tables. MAXQDA offers overview tables for almost everything, memos, coded segments, links, and so on. You can also use summary tables, with which compressed summaries of sources can be effectively compared and represented. They can easily be integrated into your literature review report.
Quantitative evaluation of themes
Quantitative aspects can also be relevant in a literature review. For example, sort sources according to document variables and compare amounts with frequency tables and charts. Don’t miss the word frequency functions of MAXDictio that make the quantitative analysis of terms and their semantic contexts even easier.
Visualize your literature review
Whether for your analysis or publication, MAXQDA’s visual tools are tailor-made for qualitative research, and are also very effective for a literature review. Work with word clouds to explore the central themes of a text and key terms that are used or make use of the graphical representation possibilities of MAXMaps, which in particular permit the creation of concept maps.
QTT: Collect relevant insights and develop new theories
MAXQDA 2022 introduces a brand new and innovative workspace to gather important visualization, notes, segments, and other analytics results! The new QTT will support you during the analysis phase after coding and is the perfect space to collect relevant insights and develop new theories.
Share your research with the world
Your MAXQDA data is just waiting to be shared with the world! Export parts of your project, single documents, search results or the whole project into easily readable file formats, like Excel, Word. You can also export complete projects into a clear and understandable folder structure. MAXQDA also follows the REFI-QDA standard, which allows you to export and import data from other QDA software packages.
Work with any Language in MAXQDA
MAXQDA offers a variety of possibilities to work with different languages. Not only is the User Interface available in numerous languages but also your analysis can be conducted in every single language of the world. The fact that MAXQDA supports Unicode makes it possible to import and analyze documents in any script and language. Learn how to use MAXQDA in your preferred language in our Getting Started Guides. Additionally, our international Professional Trainer Network provides the opportunity to participate in multilingual MAXQDA Workshops.