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Grade 12 creative writing quarter 1 module 4 answer key

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Reading and Writing Skills, Alternative Delivery Mode, Quarter 3 – Module 3: Explicit and Implicit Claims in Written Text, First Edition, 2020, Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of, the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office, wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such, agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties., Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names,, trademarks, etc.) included in this module are owned by their respective copyright holders., Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from their, respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership, over them., Published by the Department of Education, Secretary: Leonor Magtolis Briones, Undersecretary: Diosdado M. San Antonio, Development Team of the Module, Writers: Kristine Y. Zantua, Jayson B. Agarin, Editors: Shiela Niña L. Rea-Santes, Orven Francis G. De Pedro, Reviewers: Cyril E. Sales, Susana J. Sacatrapos, Louie Grace G. Margallo, Laila R., Maloles, Jonathan H. Marquez, Jhonathan S. Cadavido, Illustrator: Jayson K. Latade, Layout Artists: Victoria P. Gabiano, Mark Joseph O. Torres, Management Team: Regional Director: Wilfredo E. Cabral, CLMD Chief: Job S. Zape Jr., Regional EPS In Charge of LRMS: Eugenio S. Adrao, Regional ADM Coordinator: Elaine T. Balaogan,, Schools Division Superintendents: Ludy N. Pasagui,, Doris DJ. Estalilla, Assistant School Division Superintendent/s: Neil G. Angeles,, Elvira B. Catangay, CID Chief/s: Vincent Emmanuel L. Ilagan, Edna F. Hemedez, Division EPS/s In Charge of LRMS: Henry P. Contemplacion,, Jackie Lou A. Almira, Printed in the Philippines by ________________________, Department of Education – RegionIV-A CALABARZON, Office Address:, Telefax:, E-mail Address:, , Gate 2 Karangalan Village, Barangay San Isidro, Cainta, Rizal 1800, 02-8682-5773/8684-4914/8647-7487, [email protected], i

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Reading and Writing, Skills, Quarter 3 – Module 3:, Explicit and Implicit Claims, in Written Texts, , 1

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Introductory Message, For the facilitator:, Welcome to the Reading and Writing Skills Alternative Delivery Mode (ADM) Module, on the Explicit and Implicit Claims in Written Texts., This module was collaboratively designed, developed and reviewed by educators both, from public and private institutions to assist you, the teacher or facilitator in helping, the learners meet the standards set by the K to 12 Curriculum while overcoming, their personal, social, and economic constraints in schooling., This learning resource hopes to engage the learners into guided and independent, learning activities at their own pace and time. Furthermore, this also aims to help, learners acquire the needed 21st century skills while taking into consideration their, needs and circumstances., In addition to the material in the main text, you will also see this box in the body of, the module:, , Notes to the Teacher, This contains helpful tips or strategies that will help you in guiding the learners., As a facilitator, you are expected to orient the learners on how to use this module., You also need to keep track of the learners’ progress while allowing them to manage, their own learning. Furthermore, you are expected to encourage and assist the, learners as they do the tasks included in the module., , For the learner:, Welcome to the Reading and Writing Skills Alternative Delivery Mode (ADM) Module, on the Explicit and Implicit Claims in Written Texts!, The hand is one of the most symbolized parts of the human body. It is often used to, depict skill, action and purpose. Through our hands, we may learn, create and, accomplish. Hence, the hand in this learning resource signifies that you as a learner, is capable and empowered to successfully achieve the relevant competencies and, skills at your own pace and time. Your academic success lies in your own hands!, This module was designed to provide you with fun and meaningful opportunities for, guided and independent learning at your own pace and time. You will be enabled to, process the contents of the learning resource while being an active learner., , 2

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This module has the following parts and corresponding icons:, What I Need to Know, , This will give you an idea of the skills or, competencies you are expected to learn in the, module., , What I Know, , This part includes an activity that aims to, check what you already know about the, lesson to take. If you get all the answers, correct (100%), you may decide to skip this, module., , What’s In, , This is a brief drill or review to help you link, the current lesson with the previous one., , What’s New, , In this portion, the new lesson will be, introduced to you in various ways such as a, story, a song, a poem, a problem opener, an, activity or a situation., , What is It, , This section provides a brief discussion of the, lesson. This aims to help you discover and, understand new concepts and skills., , What’s More, , This comprises activities for independent, practice to solidify your understanding and, skills of the topic. You may check the, answers to the exercises using the Answer, Key at the end of the module., , What I Have Learned, , This, includes, questions, or, blank, sentence/paragraph to be filled-in to process, what you learned from the lesson., , What I Can Do, , This section provides an activity which will, help you transfer your new knowledge or skill, into real life situations or concerns., , Assessment, , This is a task which aims to evaluate your, level of mastery in achieving the learning, competency., , Additional Activities, , In this portion, another activity will be given, to you to enrich your knowledge or skill of the, lesson learned. This also tends retention of, learned concepts., , Answer Key, , This contains answers to all activities in the, module., , 3

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At the end of this module you will also find:, , References, , This is a list of all sources used in developing, this module., , The following are some reminders in using this module:, 1. Use the module with care. Do not put unnecessary mark/s on any part of the, module. Use a separate sheet of paper in answering the exercises., 2. Don’t forget to answer What I Know before moving on to the other activities, included in the module., 3. Read the instruction carefully before doing each task., 4. Observe honesty and integrity in doing the tasks and checking your answers., 5. Finish the task at hand before proceeding to the next., 6. Return this module to your teacher/facilitator once you are through with it., If you encounter any difficulty in answering the tasks in this module, do not hesitate, to consult your teacher or facilitator. Always bear in mind that you are not alone., We hope that through this material, you will experience meaningful learning and, gain deep understanding of the relevant competencies. You can do it!, , What I Need to Know, Reading engagement becomes very productive when learners like you have to be, conscious in giving sound reactions about the text. This is a manifestation that your, attachment towards the reading materials becomes intense. Consequently, you are, reaching the stage where critical reading happens. As critical readers, you can assess, texts that exhibit specific claims such as claim of fact, claim of value, and claim of, policy., This module is divided into a variety of activities which you will answer at your own, pace so that you will be able to learn the skills that will enable you to read critically, and react logically., The module is divided into three lessons, namely:, , , , , Lesson 1 – Claim of Fact, Lesson 2 – Claim of Policy, Lesson 3 – Claim of Value, , 4

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After going through this module, you are expected to:, 1. identify claims explicitly or implicitly made in a written text;, 2. determine the key elements of explicit and implicit claims;, 3. differentiate claim of fact, claim of policy and claim of value from each other;, and, 4. identify claims of fact, policy and value presented in written texts., , What I Know, Write the letter of the best answer on a separate sheet., 1. Which of the following statements is an example of a claim?, a. Ruiz believes that change has come., b. Filipinos need to exercise their right to vote., c. Annie thinks that we should have a universal health care., d. All of the above, 2. The following are characteristics of a good claim EXCEPT, a. argumentative and debatable, b. specific and focused, c. interesting and engaging, d. fun and entertaining, 3. Jeremiah is happy because he gets good grades. Which question from the, list below is explicit?, a. Who is Jeremiah?, b. Where is Jeremiah?, c. What did Jeremiah feel after seeing his grades?, d. What did Jeremiah do to be able to get a good grade?, 4. What specific claim asserts some empirical (experience/ observation-based), truth?, a. claim of fact, b. claim of value, c. claim of policy, d. claim of judgment, 5. Tears came out of Rhianne’s eyes when her teacher announced the, honor students. Which question relative to the given scenario is implicit?, a. What was announced?, b. Who announced the honor students?, c. What was the name of the girl who cried?, d. Why did Rhianne cry?, 5

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6. Coronavirus is, a. claim of, b. claim of, c. claim of, d. claim of, , now classified as a pandemic. What type of claim is this?, judgment, policy, value, fact, , 7. All characteristics are true about claim of fact EXCEPT, a. Something that can be proven or disproven with facts, b. Argues about the definition of something, c. Argues for or against a solution or policy, d. Argues whether something is a settled fact, 8. Which of the following types of claim leads to action?, a. claim of judgment, b. claim of policy, c. claim of value, d. claim of fact, 9. Which of the following question is intended for claim of policy?, a. What action can be taken?, b. Is it right or wrong?, c. Is it true or untrue?, d. Is it a yes or no?, 10. Which among the claims is claim of policy?, a. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the reason behind, the existence of a respiratory ailment called coronavirus disease 2019, (COVID-19)., b. With what is happening in the world now, we should spend more on, research., c. Coronavirus disease is now considered to be a pandemic., d. Coronavirus disease was first discovered in China., 11. In claim of policy, which modal verb should not be used?, a. have to, b. should, c. must, d. could, 12. Giving vaccines to children without sufficient scientific studies is wrong., What specific claim is the given statement?, a. claim of value, b. claim of policy, c. claim of cause, d. claim of fact, , 6

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13. This question is intended for claim of value., a. What action can be taken?, b. Is it right or wrong?, c. Is it true or untrue?, d. Is it a yes or no?, 14. Which is not the reference of claim of value?, a. philosophy, b. fiction, c. ethics, d. belief, 15. Which among the claims is a claim of value?, a. Marijuana pertains to major parts taken from the Cannabis sativa or, Cannabis indica plant such as seeds, dried leaves, flowers, stems,, and seeds., b. Marijuana has adverse effect if it will be used for recreational purposes., c. Marijuana should be legalized for medical purposes., d. Marijuana can be used to treat insomnia., , Lesson, , 1, , Claim of Fact, , As a critical reader, you may encounter texts that exhibit specific claims. Some can, be directly stated while others can be mentioned indirectly. It is important to know, how you can identify them and how you can distinguish the type of claims a written, text has. These are the key concepts and skills you have to learn in this lesson., , What’s In, After learning about the properties of a well-written text, analyzing the stand or, argument of a text would be your next step. Here, you are encouraged to illustrate a, good level of understanding of the written text through verification, affirmation, and, assertion. This undertaking leads to bits of information covering a discourse called, claims., , 7

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What’s New, Examine the pictures below and write one direct and one indirect observation for, each., Direct Observation, , Indirect Observation, , Claims are synonymous to belief, argument, assertion, or stand. According to, (Tiongson 2016, 20-21), a good claim should be argumentative and debatable,, specific and focused, interesting and engaging, and logical., These information can be explicit or implicit. An explicit claim is directly and clearly, stated in the text. It is when you can easily point out the information in the passage., Meanwhile, an implicit claim is indirectly expressed in the text and you need to look, for cluesor make inferences to understand its meaning., There are three types of claims in written texts. One of which is the claim of fact., Simply, this claim is a statement that reports, describes predicts, make causal, claims, or whether something is a settled fact., , What’s More, A. Read the text and write down E if the piece of information is explicit or write, down I if it is implicit., “Congratulations, Rosie! Your parents must be proud of you.” The teacher greeted, her with delight. It was graduation day and Rosie managed to stand on stage and, delivered her speech in front of her fellow graduates and guests. She ended her speech, thanking her Alma mater and her parents and said, “Let us trust God’s plan.”, Rosie left the stage with tears in her eyes as the clicking of the medals could be, heard from afar., As she approached her parents, they kissed her and gave her a big hug and, uttered, “We love you, dear! Your success is our success. We will surely celebrate at, home., 8

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1., 2., 3., 4., 5., , The teacher congratulated Rosie., Rosie stood on stage and delivered her speech., Rosie was full of happiness., Rosie was a hard-working and intelligent student., The parents of Rosie promised to celebrate her success., , B. Put a check mark () if the statement is a claim of fact and put a cross mark (X), if it is not., 1. The Department of Education shows its readiness on the ‘new normal’ in the, teaching and learning process., 2. Curfew must be enforced by parents to their children., 3. Vaping can have same side effects as smoking., 4. The closing of Philippine borders to tourists is one way to slow down the, spread of COVID-19., 5. Doing videos in TikTok is more exciting than vlogging., 6. Research says that people can reduce stress by taking a nap., 7. It is more beneficial for a child to grow up speaking more than one, language than knowing only his or her mother tongue., 8. National ID system should now be implemented in the Philippines., 9. Neil Armstrong made a history as the first man to walk on the moon., 10. Watching K-Drama is the best form of entertainment., , What I Have Learned, On a separate sheet, copy and complete the table below by listing the needed, information., 3, THREE new things that you have learned today., 2, 1, , TWO things that you will work on for improvement., ONE thing that you should review before moving on to the next lesson., , What I Can Do, On a separate sheet of paper, write a 150-word paragraph on a topic about, “Social Media: Benefits and Drawbacks”. In this essay, you are REQUIRED to use, claims such as claim of factwhich you learned from the lesson. INDICATE the, claim(s)you used and write it at the bottommost part of your paper.You are free to, encode and print it on a bond paper. A rubric is attached for your reference on, checking the essay. The highest point that you can get for each criterion is five, 9

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(5). Otherwise, if the description for each criterion is not met, you will get four, (4) points. This writing activity will have a total score of 20., RUBRIC FOR ESSAY, CRITERIA, , Highest, Possible, Score, , Use of Claims, Did you use 5 or more arguable claims?, Content, Does your paragraph show focus on the central idea?, Did you provide evidences to support your claim?, Structure, Did your paragraph show smooth and logical transition?, Is it organized with a good flow of thought?, Conventions, Does your paragraph show little or no errors in sentence, structure, spelling, capitalization, and punctuation?, Did you use formal vocabulary with appropriate tone?, TOTAL, , SCORE, , 5, 5, 5, 5, , 20, , Additional Activities, To learn more about this lesson, go online at kahoot.com using the link or, the QR codesbelow. Here’s how:, , , , , , Open your browser and go to kahoot.com, On the top part of the website, click play and then type the game pin, provided by the teacher, Type your nickname then click ‘Ok, go’, You are now ready to play the game., , Explicit & Implicit Claim:, https://create.kahoot.it/share/explicitimplicit/19ff16c7-65d8-44a4-9d04-208862aa2ee3, For easy access, try to scan the QR code provided., Claim of Fact, https://create.kahoot.it/share/claim-offact/001c52e4-0225-4570-8ef7-a45afae02f8e, For easy access, try to scan the QR code provided., , 10

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In case that you do not have means to access this activity, list down five claims you, watched from the COVID-19 updates and identify if it is explicit or implicit., , Notes to the Teacher, To make this lesson exciting, you may host the game at kahoot.com. Here’s how, you can do it:,  Open your browser and use the link or scan the QR code above.,  Click play as guest then choose “Classic”,  Give the game pin provided to your students,  Wait for them to enter the game and then click start., , Lesson, , 2, , Claim of Policy, , In this lesson, you are expected to learn how to determine another type of claim in a, written text. Claimis described as a debatable set of words or a concept that allows, the source to influence the receiver for acceptance. It is equated to an opinion, idea,, or assertion., , What’s In, Claim has been associated with words such as belief, argument, assertion or stand., It can be classified according to method and nature. Explicit claim and implicit, claim are types of claim based on method. On the other hand, claim of fact, claim, of policy and claim of value are types of claim based on nature., In the last module, you have learned that claim of fact is an argument that is based, on reality, it considers time (past, present, and future). Now, we’re moving on to, the claim of policy., 11

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Notes to the Teacher, You may visit websites that are found in the reference part of this, module as a learning booster., , What’s New, Reveal the mystery term by finding the keywords from the puzzle. List down the key, words and the mystery word on a separate sheet., , 12

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What is It, Claim of policy is the argument where actions should be carried out. Basically, it is, perceived as a relatively direct statement. This claim can also be called claim of, solution because it suggests and supports policies and solutions, and the action to, be taken is based on the results. You will know if a statement is a claim of policy if, there is an action to be done or a solution to be taken., , What’s More, Analyze each statement below. Then answer the guide questions on a separate sheet., 1. Gender equality should be supported by every Filipino., Is there an action to be done?, If yes, what is that action?, What type of claim is this?, 2. The pandemic which the world is experiencing takes away lives; thus,, Filipinos are ought to stay at home., Is there an action to be done?, If yes, what is that action?, What type of claim is this?, 3. The Bayanihan to Heal as One Act is implemented to fight COVID 19 crisis, and therefore should be obeyed., Is there an action to be done?, If yes, what is that action?, What type of claim is this?, 4. Spreading fake news in the midst of pandemic will not help at all; hence,, by all means it should be stopped., Is there an action to be done?, If yes, what is that action?, What type of claim is this?, , 13

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5. Frontliners save lives while sacrificing their own; discrimination of these, people should not be tolerated., Is there an action to be done?, If yes, what is that action?, What type of claim is this?, , What I Have Learned, Complete the sentence by writing down the letter of the correct word., A. Should, , E. discipline, , B. Result, , F. problem, , C. Intervention, , G. action, , D. Comparison, , H. love, , 1. Claim of policy is also called claim of solution because it proposes, ____________ to solve the existing problem., 2. ______________ is the main element of claim of policy., 3. The suggested action is based on the identified ______________., 4. “Ought”, “must”, and _____________ can be directly or indirectly stated in the, claim., 5. In claim of policy, one can notice the possible solution because there is an, existing __________________., , What I Can Do, Pretend that you are one of the officers of the Supreme Student Government (SSG), in your school and you are tasked to write a report about your school. The report, should contain three current problems or concerns experienced by students like you., More so, a possible solution for each problem should also be proposed. Merge your, identified problems and solutions to produce three claims of policy. Be guided by the, rubric that follows., , 14

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Points, 3, , Descriptions,  All the details that are being asked are included., ,  Writing shows high degree of attention to logical content.,  No spelling or grammatical errors,  Some important details may be missing., , 2, ,  Some points remain misplaced and stray from the topic.,  Few mechanical errors,  Many details are missing., , 1, ,  Most of the points remain misplaced and stray from the topic.,  Many mechanical errors, , Additional Activities, On a separate sheet, write ‘CP’ if the given statement is a claim of policy and ‘NCP’ if, not., 1. Anti-Text Scam Bill should be passed as law to protect the people., 2. Euthanasia also known as mercy killing is against the Law of God., 3. We should not support nor do Euthanasia or mercy killing in the Philippines, because it is still an act of killing., 4. Abortion should not be legalized in the Philippines because every child is a gift., 5. Every child has the right to be born whether he/she is made out of love or anything, else. Doing abortion is doing a criminal act., , 15

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Lesson, , 3, , Claim of Value, , In this lesson, you are going to learn more about another type of claim – something, that allows the readers to decide what should or should not be valued. It is beyond, facts and beyond policies but surely appeals to your emotions and justifications., Later in this lesson, you are expected to be able to identify different types of claims, from a written text., , What’s In, , Previously, you have learned that claim of policy is an argument that offers solutions, based on the identified problems. Action is its main core; thus, its end result is when, a certain action has been taken or implemented. However, other than taking actions,, making justification is also as important. So, this will be the focus of this lesson., , Notes to the Teacher, You may visit websites that are found in the reference part of this, module as a learning booster., , What’s New, On a separate sheet, write the answer to the riddle to reveal the mystery word., You caught me first at home but over the years, you formed me in school., , 16

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Claim of value is an argument based on morality, belief, ethics, or philosophy. It is, influentially stated by combining limited facts and proving them as either good or, bad by targeting the reader’s emotion., It is also called claim of judgment because the reader has to decide whether the, argument or proposition is right or wrong or has to be accepted or rejected. In other, words, this type of claim is more appealing to the reader’s subjectivity. If the, argument challenges the decision making or judgment leading to acceptance or, rejection of the reader, then it is considered to be a claim of value., , What’s More, Answer the three questions relative to the listed issues. Write your answers on a, separate sheet., , A. Does it appeal to your judgment?, B. Is it right or wrong?, C. What type of claim is this?, 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., , Bullying will never be right., Security is more important than privacy., In the midst of pandemic, restriction is much better than individual freedom., Fake news is not worthy of our attention., Discriminating our front liners who save our lives does not make sense., , What I Have Learned, Write the letter of the word which completes the statement. Use a separate sheet., A. result, , E. action, , B. evaluation, , F. judgment, , C. emotion, , G. problem, , D. bad, , H. ethics, , 1. Claim of value appeals to __________., 2. Words like good or __________ allow us to recognize claim of value., 17

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3. Claim of value is also called __________ because it persuades the readers to, decide whether to value or not an argument., 4. Morality, philosophy, belief, or __________ are references of claim of value., 5. Acceptance and rejection must be done with claim of value after the argument, undergoes thorough comparison and __________., , What I Can Do, On a separate sheet, write an acrostic poem about the essence of claim of value., , V, C, , A, C, , L, C, , U, C, , E, C, , 18

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Be guided by the rubric below., Points, 5, , 4, , 3, , 2, , 1, , Descriptions, o, o, o, o, o, o, o, o, o, o, o, o, o, o, o, , The acrostic is logically written., It reveals high degree of critical thinking., It is free from distracting spelling., The acrostic has a little lapse with content congruency., It displays good degree of critical thinking., It has limited distracting spelling., The acrostic has a problem with content congruency., Some critical thinking is present., It has more misspelled words., The acrostic shows more problems with content congruency., Less critical thinking is presented., Misspelled words are committed., The acrostic does not display content congruency at all, The words used in the piece have no relationship with the topic, The words are mostly misspelled., , Additional Activities, , On a separate sheet write ‘CV’ if the statement is a claim of policy and write ‘NCV’ if, not., , _____, , 1. Mercy killing is objectionable because it is still an act of killing., , _____, , 2. Self-restriction during the pandemic is better than individual freedom., , _____, , 3. Discrimination has no place in a good society because it weakens its, moral fiber., , _____, , 4. Hallucination is the side effect of using marijuana., , _____, , 5. According to studies, smoking causes lung cancer., , 19

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Assessment, Write the letter of the best answer on a separate sheet., 1. The following are characteristics of a good claim EXCEPT, a. argumentative and debatable, b. specific and focused, c. interesting and engaging, d. fun and entertaining, 2. Coronavirus is, a. claim of, b. claim of, c. claim of, d. claim of, , now classified as a pandemic. What type of claim is this?, judgment, policy, value, fact, , 3. Jeremiah is happy because he gets good grades. Which question from the, list below is explicit?, a. Who is Jeremiah?, b. Where is Jeremiah?, c. What did Jeremiah feel after seeing his grades?, d. What did Jeremiah do to be able to get a good grade?, 4. Tears came out of Rhianne’s eyes when her teacher announced the honor, students. Which question from the list below is implicit?, a. What was announced?, b. Who announced the honor students?, c. What was the name of the girl who cried?, d. Why did Rhianne cry?, 5. What specific claim asserts some empirical (experience/ observation-based), truth?, a. claim of fact, b. claim of value, c. claim of policy, d. claim of judgment, 6. Which of the following statements is an example of a claim?, a. Ruiz believes that change has come., b. Filipinos need to exercise their right to vote., c. Annie thinks that we should have a universal health care., d. All of the above, , 20

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7. Which of the following types of claim leads to action?, a. claim of judgment, b. claim of policy, c. claim of value, d. claim of fact, 8. Which among the claims is claim of policy?, a. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the reason behind, the existence of a respiratory ailment called coronavirus disease 2019, (COVID-19)., b. With what is happening in the world now, we should spend more on, research., c. Coronavirus disease is now considered to be a pandemic., d. Coronavirus disease was first discovered in China., 9. All characteristics are true about claim of fact EXCEPT, a. Something that can be proven or disproven with facts, b. Argues about the definition of something, c. Argues for or against a solution or policy, d. Argues whether something is a settled fact, 10. Which of the following question is intended for claim of policy?, a. What action can be taken?, b. Is it right or wrong?, c. Is it true or untrue?, d. Is it a yes or no?, 11. This question is intended for claim of value., a. What action can be taken?, b. Is it right or wrong?, c. Is it true or untrue?, d. Is it a yes or no?, 12. Giving vaccines to children without sufficient scientific studies is wrong., What specific claim is the given statement?, a. claim of value, b. claim of policy, c. claim of cause, d. claim of fact, , 21

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13. Which among the claims is a claim of value?, a. Marijuana pertains to major parts taken from the Cannabis sativa or, Cannabis indica plant such as seeds, dried leaves, flowers, stems,, and seeds., b. Marijuana has adverse effect if it will be used for recreational, purposes., c. Marijuana should be legalized for medical purposes., d. Marijuana can be used to treat insomnia., , 14. Which is not the reference of claim of value?, a. philosophy, b. fiction, c. ethics, d. belief, 15. In claim of policy, which modal verb should not be used?, a. have to, b. should, c. must, d. could, , 22

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23, , Assessment, 1. D, 2. D, 3. C, 4. D, 5. A, 6. D, 7. B, 8. B, 9. C, 10.A, 11.B, 12.A, 13.B, 14.B, 15.D, , Lesson 3, What’s More, 1 A. Yes, B. Right, C. claim of value, 2. A. Yes, B. Answer may vary, C. claim of value, 3. A. Yes, B. Right, C. claim of value, 4. A. Yes, B. Right, C. claim of value, 5. A. Yes, B. Right, C. Claim of value, , What I Know, 1. D, 2. D, 3. C, 4. A, 5. D, 6. D, 7. C, 8. B, 9. A, 10.B, 11.D, 12.A, 13.B, 14.B, 15.B, , Lesson 2, What’s More, 1., A. Yes, B. should be supported, C. claim of policy, , 2., A. Yes, B. Stay at home, C. claim of policy, 3., A. Yes, B. Should be obeyed, C. claim of policy, , Lesson 1, What’s More, A., 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., , Explicit, Explicit, Implicit, Implicit, Explicit, , B., 1. , 2. X, 3. , 4. , 5. X, 6. , 7. X, 8. X, 9. , 10. X, , 4., A. Yes, B. Should be stopped, C. claim of policy, 5., A. Yes, B. should not be, tolerated, C. claim of policy, , Answer Key

Creative Writing Quarter 3 Module 4:

1 Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Regional Office IX-Zamboanga Peninsula 11/ 12 Zest for Progress Zeal of Partnership Creative Writing Quarter 3 Module 4: Forms of Poetry Name of Learner: Grade & Section: Name of School:

2 Creative Writing Grade 11/12 Alternative Delivery Mode Quarter 3 Module 4: Forms of Poetry (First Edition, 2020) Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for the exploitation of such work for a profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties. Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this module are owned by their respective copyright holders. Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them. Published by the Department of Education Secretary: Leonor Magtolis Briones Undersecretary: Diosdado M. San Antonio Development Team of the Module Writer: Editor/QA: Reviewers: Layout Artist: Nuriza R. Salasain Marion B. Guerrero Florenda H. Quinte, PD Valeriafides G. Corteza, PhD EPS-English Jovie R. Cruz Management Team: Roy C. Tuballa, EMD, JD, CESO VI Jay S. Montealto, CESO VI Norma T. Francisco, DM Mildred D. Dayao, EdD Valeriafides G. Corteza, PhD Aida Coyme, EdD Printed in in the Philippines by Department of Education Region Region IX IX Zamboanga Peninsula Office Address: Office Address: Pres. Corazon C. Aquino Regional Government Center, Balintawak, Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Telefax: Sur Province Telefax: Address: (062) , , , Address:

3 What I Need to Know Creative writing is used extensively in literature. It is used to capture in words significant human experiences or describe in vivid details feelings, emotions, and memories that may be real or not. Literature comes in three genres: prose, poetry, and drama. For this particular module, the focus will be on poetry. Poetry as a genre of literature is considered to be the shortest in number of words involved but the most complex in terms of interpretation. It is no surprise then, that many readers find analyzing a poem quite challenging. This module is made for you to understand the forms of poetry and it provides you with a world view of subjects, topics, and content that adds to your knowledge. In this module, you are expected to: Identify the various elements, techniques, and literary devices in specific forms of poetry. HUMSS_CW/MP11/12cf-6 What I Know Directions: Choose the letter of the best answer, and write these on a separate sheet of paper. 1. The main identifiable structure of poetry is the? a. the line c. the language b. the persona d. the metaphor 2. This figure of speech is a requirement in poetry. a. metonymy c. metaphor b. meronymy d. metathesis 3. A type of poetry that tells a story a. lyric c. descriptive b. dramatic d. narrative 4. A lyric poem that expresses grief at death a. elegy c. enology b. eulogy d. emery 5. This type of poem tells a story and connects the reader to an audience through emotions or behavior a. lyric c. descriptive b. dramatic d. narrative 1

4 Lesson 1 FORMS OF POETRY Poetry is a form of literature that presents an awareness of one s imagination or experience of a specific emotion or feeling through language selected and arranged to create meaning, sound, rhythm. In addition, poetry utilizes forms and conventions of language to suggest a variety of interpretations of words, or to evoke emotive responses. As such, creative writing plays an important role in the creation of poetry. Poetry comes in three classification: (1) narrative, (2) lyric, and (3) dramatic. Under these classifications are numerous forms, some of which will be discussed in this module. We will also be analyzing some passages/excerpts from examples. We have now defined poetry. Now, we will discuss further the classification and some forms of poetry. What s In Directions: Below is a passage from the poem written by Anthony L. Tan, Letter to Ling. Read it and answer the succeeding questions. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper. I m writing to tell you How like my falling hair Things are falling away from me. Indeed, like a tired planet, I have lost my gravity. And as I whirl daily in space, Like one marooned, Things are flying away from me. I have been flying, too, Flying towards you, But it only gives me this vertigo. Tonight, across the light-years of your absence, The silence in this room is made palpable By the rasping of amorous lizards on the wall. (Source: deviantart.com/karlc/journal/) 2

5 1. This excerpt belongs to which classification of poetry? a. lyric c. descriptive b. dramatic d. narrative 2. The phrase in bold in the excerpt is which type of imagery? a. auditory c. kinesthetic b. gustatory d. olfactory 3. What is being emphasized in this poem? a. data c. emotion b. facts d. information Directions: Below is a poem written by Merlie M Alunan, Old Man at Midday. Read it and answer the succeeding questions. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper. Through a slit in the slats of the wood By the kitchen stove from where I stood, He looked no more than a thumb s length tall. He would not see or hear me if I call. Among the limp shrubs stunted with the heat he merged, A scarecrow dressed in rags, dragging His feet (1). I seemed to hear as he passed The gravel crunching, the hiss of dead grass He bent, perhaps to right a twig, or gather An old man s poor booty in summer Wood to raise as evening s humble fire. I would never see from where I stood What fixed his eyes past the sapling grove, But oh, why in my gut this sudden cold? (2) (Source: merliealunan.blogspot.com/) 4. This excerpt belongs to which classification of poetry? a. lyric c. descriptive b. dramatic d. narrative 5. This line in bold (1) in the excerpt is which type of imagery? a. auditory c. tactile b. gustatory d. visual 6. This line in bold (2) in the excerpt is which type of imagery? c. auditory c. organic d. kinesthetic d. visual 3

6 What s New Directions: Copy the following on a separate sheet of paper and draw a check mark beside the sentence that you think contains a figure of speech. 1. Poetry utilizes language from factual sources to establish claims. 2. Emotions and feelings are heightened in poetic language. 3. The difference between prose and poetry lies in their structure. 4. A poem has chapters to divide the flow of its plot. 5. A poem requires the use of metaphor and other figures of speech. What Is It Poetry comes in three classifications, under which are different forms. This module presents some of these. The three classifications of poetry. 1. Narrative. By its name, narrative poetry tells a story or a series of events. Some forms of narrative poetry include ballad (a short poem that often includes a dialogue through simple language), metrical tale (a poem with plenty of descriptions of attitudes and opinions in verse form), and epic (a very lengthy poem about heroes and great warriors often in fantastical and lofty language.) 2. Lyric. Often melodious because of the rhyming patterns that it follows, lyric poetry present emotions, feelings and/or memories and does not tell a story. Forms of lyric poetry include reflective lyric (a poetic response through recalling past emotions), elegy (dignified poem about grief and death), ode (formal poetic language used to commemorate an important or historical event) and sonnet (a poem that follows a strict rhyme scheme and structure). 3. Dramatic. Also known as dramatic verse or verse drama, this poetry tells a story and is meant to be spoken or acted. This classification includes dramatic narrative (a poem that tells a story through the point of view of a person involved in it), dramatic monologue (a poetic speech addressed to the audience or to an absent character) and soliloquy (a poetic speech of one character speaking alone, usually to him or herself). 4

7 What s More Activity 1: MODIFIED ACROSTIC Directions: Describe poetry through sentences or phrases that begin in the following letters that spell the word POETRY. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper. P O E T R Y Activity 2: Directions: The following subjects belong to which classification of poetry? Choose the letter of the correct answer, and write these on a separate sheet of paper. A. narrative B. lyric C. dramatic 1. The adventures of Hercules. 2. The death of a husband. 3. Indarapatra and Sulayman in the Kingdom of Mantapoli 4. Talking to Justice as if it were a real person. 5. A speech on the how the youth can emulate Rizal in the present. 6. Two farmers discussing about hardships of rural life. 7. Romeo and Juliet 8. Losing a beloved pet dog. 9. Memories of childhood games. 10. The important lesson of Araw ng Kagitingan. 5

8 What I Have Learned Directions: Fill out the graphic organizer to show the similarities and differences of the three classifications of poetry. Do this on a separate sheet of paper. Narrative Poetry Lyric Poetry Dramatic Poetry 6

9 What I Can Do Directions: Narrative poems are poems that tell stories. Just like a story, narrative poems have a beginning, a middle, and an end. Study the following example and try to create your own narrative poem about your day. Narrative poems also do not have to rhyme. Use a separate sheet of paper for this activity. Rotten, Icky Monday Mornings by Alison Roozeboom Those rotten, icky Monday mornings always get my goat. This morning I woke up and had an itchy, scratchy throat, I burnt my tongue on hot cocoa, then tripped down half the stairs, forgot my lunch, forgot my books, forgot to brush my hair. At recess Billy said to me, Ha-ha, you re such a nerd! I was so upset that during class I didn t hear a word, and when the teacher called on me I had nothing to say. When class was done, Miss Johnson came to me and asked, Bad day? I nodded, so she smiled and said, I thought that you seemed blue those rotten, icky Monday mornings get me sometimes, too. I ll tell you what I do to turn a nasty day around: First, I jump a dozen times just one foot on the ground. I scrunch my nose and purse my lips and shut my eyes so tight, I flap my arms like chicken wings and roar with all my might. And sure enough, the silly jig was like a magic cure. I did it all the way back home and I can say for sure, those rotten, icky Monday mornings may be quite a pain, but laughing makes it easier to pick yourself up again. 7

10 Assessment Directions: Read the questions and choose the letter of the best answer. Use a separate sheet of paper for your responses. 1. Poetry crafts language to create lines that elevate? a. scientific facts b. emotions or memories c. mathematical equations d. estimates and percentages 2. The structural difference of poetry from prose a. use of narration b. figures of speech c. presence of imagery d. lines instead of sentences 3. Which of the following statements describe narrative poetry? a. Narrative poetry exclusively deals with heightening emotions and feelings. b. Narrative poetry aims to be performed on stage or through actors. c. Narrative poetry is based on memories or recollections of the past. d. Narrative poetry is composed of sequences of events or a plot. 4. Which of the following poetic form is classified as narrative? a. haiku b. tanka c. epic d. sonnet 5. The following are examples of narrative poetry EXCEPT a. epic b. ballad c. metrical tale d. dramatic verse 6. Which of the following statements is a description of lyric poetry? a. Lyric poetry expresses attitudes and opinions. b. Lyric poetry utilizes the stage as platform of communication. c. Lyric poetry records the legendary adventures of folk heroes. d. Lyric poetry commemorates the value of an important event. 7. The following subjects may be made into a lyric poem, EXCEPT a. emotions b. memories c. recollections d. heroic deeds 8

11 8. Which of the following is a form of lyric poetry? a. elegy b. sonata c. soliloquy d. novelette 9. A requirement for dramatic poetry. a. historical basis b. mythical elements c. stage performance d. factual information 10. A dramatic poem where the speaker is talking to an absent listener. a. aside b. monologue c. soliloquy d. novelette 9

12 Additional Activities Directions: Read the poem below. Determine its classification and discuss why it is such. The Conversion by J. Neil Garcia It happened in a metal drum. They put me there, my family That loved me. The water Had been saved just for it, that day. The laundry lay caked and smelly In the flower-shaped basins. Dishes soiled with fat and swill Pilled high in the sink, and grew flies. My cousins did not get washed that morning. Lost in masks of snot and dust, Their faces looked tired and resigned To the dirty lot of children. All the neighbors gathered around our open-aired bathroom. Wives peered out from the upper floor of their houses into our yard. Father had arrived booming with cousins, my uncles. They were big, strong men, my uncles. They turned the house inside-out Looking for me. Curled up in the deepest corner Of my dead mother s cabinet, father found me. He dragged me down the stairs by the hair Into the waiting arms of my uncles. Because of modesty, I merely screamed and cried. Their hands, swollen and black with hair, bore me Up in the air, and touched me. Into the cold Of the drum I slipped, the tingling Too much to bear at times my knees Felt like they had turned into water. Waves swirled up and down around me, my head Bobbing up and down. Father kept booming, Girl or boy. I thought about it and squealed, Girl. Water curled under my nose. When I rose the same two words from father. The same girl kept sinking deeper, Breathing deeper in the churning void. In the end I had to say what they all Wanted me to say. I had to bring down this diversion To its happy end, if only for the pot of rice Left burning in the kitchen. I had to stop 10

13 Wearing my dead mother s clothes. In the mirror I watched the holes on my ears grow smaller, Until they looked as if they had never heard Of rhinestones, nor felt their glassy weight. I should feel happy that I m now Redeemed. And I do. Father died within five years I got my wife pregnant with the next. Our four children, all boys, Are the joy of my manhood, my proof. Cousins who never shed their masks Play them for all their snot and grime. Another child is on the way. I have stopped caring what it will be. Water is still a problem and the drum Is still there, deep and rusty. The bathroom has been roofed over with plastic. Scrubbed and clean, my wife knows I like things. She follows, though sometimes a pighead she is. It does not hurt to show who is the man. A woman needs some talking sense into. If not, I hit her in the mouth to learn her. Every time, swill drips from her shredded lips. I drink with my uncles who all agree. They should because tonight I own their souls And the bottles they nuzzle like their prides. While they boom and boom flies whirr Over their heads that grew them. Though nobody Remembers, I sometimes think of the girl Who drowned somewhere in a dream many dreams ago. I see her at night with bubbles Springing like flowers from her nose. She is dying and before she sinks I try to touch Her open face. But the water learns To heal itself and closes around her like a wound. I should feel sorry but I drown myself in gin before I can. Better off dead, I say to myself And my family that loves me for my bitter breath. We die to rise to a better life. 11

14 Answer Key What I Know 1. a 2. c 3. d 4. a 5. b What’s More Activity 1 (Answers may vary.) Activity 2 1. A 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. C 6. A 7. C 8. B 9. B 10. C Assessment b b 2. d 3. d 4. c 5. d 6. a 7. d 8. a 9. c 12

15 References Electronic Sources Source: Letter to Ling, Anthony L. Tan, September 09, 2005 accessed December 13, 2020, Source: Old Man at Midday, Merlie M. Alunan, September 19, 2006 accessed January 03, 2021, Source: Poetry, Howard Nemerov, November 05, 2020 accessed December 13, 2020, Source: Rotten, Icky Monday Mornings, Alison Roozeboom, 2014 accessed December 13, 2020, Source: The Conversion, J. Neil Garcia, June 13, 2016 accessed January 03, 2021, Source: Three Classifications of Poetry, Ma Lorraine D. Faa, August 26, 2014 accessed December 13, 2020, 13

16 Development Team Writer: Editor/QA: Reviewer: Nuriza R. Salasain Don Pablo Lorenzo Memorial High School Stand-Alone Senior High School Zamboanga City Marion B. Guerrero Florenda H. Quinte, PD Valeria Fides G. Corteza, PhD EPS English Layout Artist: Jovie R. Cruz Management Team: Roy C. Tuballa, EMD, JD, CESO VI Jay S. Montealto, CESO VI Norma T. Francisco, DM Mildred D. Dayao, EdD Valeriafides G. Corteza, PhD Aida Coyme, EdD 14

Module 1: Reading and writing for a range of purposes

Section 1: Supporting and assessing reading and writing

Key Focus Question: How can you support learning to read and write and assess progress?

Keywords: early literacy; songs; rhymes; environmental print; assessment; group work; shared reading

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will have:

  • used songs and rhymes to teach beginners to read;
  • used ‘environmental print’ and grocery packaging to teach reading, writing and design;
  • explored ways of supporting learning with group work;
  • developed your ability to assess learning.

Introduction

What should a successful reader and writer know and be able to do? As a teacher, you need to be able to answer this question so that you can guide your pupils. Learning to read and write successfully takes practice. Therefore, it is important to use a variety of approaches and activities that will keep pupils interested. It is also important to assess pupils’ progress and to ask yourself whether you are meeting their needs. This section explores these ideas as it looks at early literacy.

1. Using songs and rhymes

Learning to read and write is hard work! Because you want pupils to look forward to reading and writing lessons, it is very important that you make your classroom – and the activities that support learning to read and write – as stimulating as possible.

Resource 1: What successful readers and writers need to know explains that pupils need to learn how to connect sounds and letters, letters and words, words and sentences. Songs and rhymes that pupils know well – and to which they can perform actions – help them to make these connections. So does shared reading, in which you read a big print storybook, with pictures, to your pupils. While you are reading, stop to show them each picture and to ask what they think will happen next. When you have finished, use the book for letter and word recognition activities in which you ask individual pupils to point to and read particular letters and words. Remember to give pupils plenty of opportunities to talk about the story – the characters, what happened, how they feel about the story, etc.

Case Study 1: Introducing pupils to reading

Mrs Nomsa Dlamini teaches pupils to read and write in isiZulu in her Grade 1 class in Nkandla, South Africa. Nomsa reads storybooks to them, including some that she has written and illustrated herself because there are few books available in isiZulu.

At the beginning of the year, she makes sure that all pupils understand how a book works – cover, title, illustrations, development of the story – because she knows that some of them have never held a book before starting school. She has found that prediction activities, in which pupils suggest what will happen next in the story, are useful and stimulating for her pupils.

Nomsa realises that pupils need a lot of practice to give them confidence in reading. She makes big print copies of Zulu rhymes or songs that they know well and also ones that she knows are particularly useful for teaching letter-sound recognition. Pupils say or sing them and perform actions to them (see Resource 2: Examples of songs and rhymes). Most importantly, she asks individual pupils to point out and read letters and words. Some pupils find this difficult so she notes their names and the letters or words they have trouble with. She prepares cards with pictures, letters and words to use in different ways with these pupils, either individually or in small groups, while the rest of the class are doing other activities. Nomsa is pleased to find that this helps the confidence and progress of these pupils.

Activity 1: Using songs and rhymes to teach reading
  • choose a favourite song/rhyme;
  • sing/say it;
  • watch carefully, while you say the words as you write them on your chalkboard (or a big piece of paper/cardboard so you can use it again);
  • read the song/rhyme with you (do this several times);
  • point out (individually) particular letters or words or punctuation (capital letters, full stops, question marks);
  • decide on actions to do while singing the song/saying the rhyme;
  • perform these actions while singing the song/saying the rhyme again;
  • sit in groups of four and take turns reading the song/rhyme to each other.

Move round the class, noting pupils who find reading difficult.

End by asking the whole class to sing the song/say the rhyme, with actions, again.

2. Using packaging to help reading

Some pupils grow up in homes that are rich in print and visual images: grocery boxes, packets and tins, books for children and adults, newspapers, magazines and even computers. Others have few of these items in their homes. Your challenge as a teacher is to provide a print-rich environment in your classroom. One way of doing this is to collect free materials wherever possible. Packaging materials (cardboard boxes, packets and tins) often have a great deal of writing on them and even very young pupils often recognise key words for widely used grocery items. For more experienced readers, magazines and newspapers that community members have finished with can be used for many classroom activities.

This part explores ways to use such print to support learning to read.

Case Study 2: Using grocery packaging for reading and writing activities

Mrs Bakoru teaches English to 54 Primary 4 pupils in Koboko, Arua District. They are not very familiar with English but they recognise letters and some English words on grocery packaging.

Mrs Bakoru asked her neighbours for empty boxes, packets and tins. She brought these to school to use for reading and writing activities.

Her pupils’ favourite game is ‘word detective’. Mrs Bakoru organised the class into nine groups of five and gave each group the same box, packet or tin. She asked pupils to write down numbers from 1 to 5 and then asked five questions (see Resource 3: Example questions to ask about a grocery item). Pupils compared individual answers and decided on a group answer. Mrs Bakoru discussed the answers with the whole class. The ‘winner’ was the group that finished first with most correct answers.

Sometimes Mrs Bakoru invited each group to ask a word detective question.

To encourage pupils to think critically, she sometimes asked questions about the design of the packaging and the messages in the advertising.

Mrs Bakoru noticed that some pupils didn’t participate, so the next time they played, she asked every pupil to write down four words from the grocery ‘container’ before they returned to their usual seats. Back at their seats she asked each one to read their list to a partner. She discovered six pupils who needed extra help and worked with them after school for an hour, using the same grocery items and giving time to practise identifying letters and words.

Mrs Bakoru realised becoming familiar with letters and words on packages helps pupils to identify these letters and words in other texts they read, such as stories. By copying words from packages, pupils also learn to write letters and words more confidently and accurately.

Activity 2: Using groceries for reading and writing activities

Bring to class enough tins, packets or boxes for each group of four or five pupils to have one item to work with or ask your class to help you collect these items.

Write questions on the chalkboard about the words and images on the packet, tin or box (see Resource 3). Either ask your pupils to read them or do it for them.

Either play the word detective game in groups (see Case Study 2) or ask pupils to write individual answers, which you assess. Arrange to give extra practice time and support to pupils who could not manage this activity.

In the next lesson, ask pupils to work in the same groups to design the print and visual information for the packaging of a real or imaginary grocery item.

Ask each group to display and talk about their design to the rest of the class.

What have pupils learned by reading the packages of grocery items and by designing and displaying their own? Compare your ideas with the suggestions in Resource 3.

3. Motivating pupils to read

Reading and writing can be very exciting and stimulating, but some pupils develop a negative attitude to these activities. This might be because they find reading and writing very difficult, perhaps because they are bored by reading and writing tasks that always follow the same pattern, or perhaps they don’t see much value in reading and writing. One of your challenges as a teacher is to stimulate pupils’ interest in reading and writing and keep them interested.

Case Study 3 and the Key Activity suggest activities that may help pupils to become more interested and confident in reading and writing.

Case Study 3: Reading neighbourhood signs and writing about them

Mr Sam Kawanga teaches English to a Primary 5 class in St John Primary School, Kampala. The area around Kampala is a densely populated area with many examples of environmental print around the school – mainly in English but also in several local languages.

To generate income, people have set up ‘backyard businesses’ such as grocery shops, barber shops, panel beaters and phone booths. These all have homemade signs and some also have commercial advertisements for various products. There are schools, clinics, places of worship and halls, most of which have signs and noticeboards. On the main road, there are signs to many places, including the respected Makerere University.

Mr Kawanga planned a route around Kampala that would give pupils opportunities to read and make notes and drawings about different examples of print and visual images. He also prepared a list of questions to guide their observations.

Mr Kawanga has 58 pupils in his class, including ten who have recently arrived from Tanzania. He decided to ask two retired multilingual friends to assist him with this activity. One speaks Kiswahili, the language of the Tanzanian pupils. The class went out in three groups.

Mr Kawanga’s friends participated in the classroom discussion and the writing and drawing activity that followed. By the end of the week, the three men agreed that pupils had become more aware of how information can be presented in different ways and in different languages and some seemed more interested in reading and writing than before.

Key Activity: Reading signs

Before the lesson, read Resource 4: Preparing for a community walk to plan the walk and prepare your questions. Write the questions on the chalkboard.

To begin the lesson, tell pupils about the walk and, if they are able, ask them to copy the questions from your chalkboard. If not, have the list of questions ready for each group leader to ask on the walk.

Take them for the planned walk through your local community.

While walking, they must give or write answers to the questions and draw examples of the print and visual images they see.

Afterwards, ask pupils in groups to share what they saw, wrote and drew. Ask the whole class to report back and record key points on the chalkboard.

Ask each group to design, write and draw a name, sign, notice or advertisement they think would be helpful to have in their community. Help them with any difficult words. Younger children may need to work in small groups with an adult to help them.

Ask each group to show their design to the whole class and explain the choice of language, visual images and information.

Display these designs in the classroom for all pupils to read.

Resource 1: What successful readers and writers need to know

Background information / subject knowledge for teacher

The language in which they are expected to read and write

If pupils have to learn to read and write in a language that is not their home language, this makes the task much more difficult. In this situation, teachers need to start with oral work and vocabulary building in this additional language, using actions and pictures. Only when pupils have some oral understanding of the additional language can they be expected to use it for reading and writing.

The written code

Pupils need to understand how the letters on the page represent particular sounds and how they combine to communicate meaning in the form of words. This is why it is important for teachers to give some attention to ‘phonics’ – the letters that represent particular sounds – when working with beginner readers. To take an example from English, as a teacher you could use a picture of a dog, with the separate letters d o g and then the word dog underneath it. First ask pupils what they see in the picture (a dog), then point to each letter and pronounce it; then pronounce the whole word. Then check pupils’ understanding by pointing to the separate letters and asking them to make each sound. Next, ask them to tell you other words beginning with the d sound. Also give them some examples of your own.

The rules of writing

Pupils need to understand how words combine to make meaning in sentences, paragraphs and longer texts (e.g. a whole storybook) and how texts are written in different ways for different purposes (e.g. a recipe for cooking a meal is written differently from a story). In the early years, pupils begin learning about how writing is organised, but this is something that they learn more about all the way through their studies. Pupils need to work with whole texts so that they can see how words connect with one another and how a story or an argument develops. This is why phonics work alone is not sufficient.

How to read drawings, photographs and diagrams and how to make connections between these visual images and written words

Pupils need to be taught to notice details in drawings, photographs and diagrams. You can help them by asking questions such as ‘What is the old man holding?’ ‘What does the hippopotamus have on his back?’

About the world and how it works

The more that teachers help pupils to expand their general knowledge of the world and how it works, the easier it is for pupils to read about what is new and unfamiliar because they can make connections between what they have already experienced or learned and this new information.

Above all, it is important that pupils enjoy reading and writing – even when they find it challenging.

Resource 2: Examples of songs and rhymes

Teacher resource for planning or adapting to use with pupils

Example of a Luganda song with an English translation

This is a lullaby – a song sung to help children to stop crying. Notice the frequent repetition of the same letters and sounds – particularly in the Luganda version.

Mwana wa nnyabo, weesirikire

Kye nnaalyako nja kuterekera

My dear mother’s child, keep quiet

I will keep for you whatever I will happen to eat

A rhyme in English that is fun to say quicklyYellow butter by Mary Ann Hoberman

Yellow butter purple jelly red jam black bread

Spread it thick

Yellow butter purple jelly red jam black bread

Spread it thicker

Yellow butter purple jelly red jam black bread

While you eat it

Yellow butter purple jelly red jam black bread

Don’t talk with your mouth full!

An action rhyme

I’m a little teapot, short and stout

Here is my handle, here is my spout

When I get my steam up

Song of the animal world – a song from the Congo

Note: This song is about movement and the sounds of the chorus represent the movement of the creatures.

NARRATOR: The fish goes

NARRATOR: The bird goes

NARRATOR: The monkey goes

FISH: I start to left,

I twist to the right.

That slips through the water,

NARRATOR: Everything lives,

BIRD: The bird flies away,

Flies, flies, flies,

Goes, returns, passes,

Climbs, floats, swoops.

NARRATOR: Everything lives,

MONKEY: The monkey! From branch

Runs, hops, jumps,

With his wife and baby,

Mouth stuffed full, tail in air,

Here’s the monkey!

Here’s the monkey!

NARRATOR: Everything lives,

Original sources:

Yellow butter – Traditional rhymes/songs; New Successful English, Grade 6, Reading Book, OxfordUniversity Press

Song of the animal world – Traditional song from the Congo, African Poetry for Schools, Longman

Resource 3: Example questions to ask about a grocery item

Teacher resource for planning or adapting to use with pupils

Questions about grocery items
  1. What is in this tin/packet/box?
  2. How do you know this?
  3. Which word or words are in the biggest letters?
  4. Why do you think this word or these words are in the biggest letters?
  5. How many words begin with capital letters?
  6. What words are written more than once?
  7. Which word is used the most?
  8. What is the weight of this product (grammes/kilogrammes)?
  9. What do all the words and pictures tell you about this product?
Questions to encourage critical thinking
  • Do you agree or disagree with what these words and pictures tell you?
  • If you had the money, would you like to buy this product? Why, or why not?

Note 1: Some products have words in more than one language. If this is the case for some of the items that you are using, you could ask pupils which languages have been used and why they think these have been used.

Note 2: These example questions are quite general. There are many other questions you could ask. For example, if there are pictures of people on the product, are they male or female, young or old? Why are these particular people on the packet/tin/box?

What pupils could learn from working with grocery packaging
  1. Beginner readers could use the words on the grocery package to gain confidence and skill in recognising the shape of upper and lower case (capital and small) letters of the alphabet and in linking the letter shapes to sounds.
  2. By copying letters and words from the packaging, beginner writers could gain confidence and skill in writing these letters and words accurately.
  3. More advanced readers could read the ‘messages’ on the packaging and think about what these mean. They could begin to become critical readers.
  4. By working in groups to design some grocery packaging, pupils could benefit from each other’s ideas, learn what is involved in package design, use their imaginations and practise some writing and reading.
  5. Some pupils find it difficult to speak to the class because they don’t know what to talk about. Having a design for a package to explain to the class gives pupils a subject to speak about.
  6. Each group’s design gives the rest of the class some additional material to read.
  7. You could make reading cards with letters/words that some pupils found difficult to read. Put a helpful picture on each card. Use these for individual or small group reading practice with these pupils at a suitable time.

Resource 4: Preparing for a community walk – during which pupils will notice environmental print

Teacher resource for planning or adapting to use with pupils

Step 1

If your class is very large, you could ask some adults from the community to help you in walking with groups of pupils. If you do this, meet with these adults before the walk to explain what you would like them to do. They should know what questions you will be asking pupils and what examples of environmental print you want pupils to notice. They may also have some suggestions to give you.

Step 2

Plan the activity by walking through the area around your school. For some of you this may be a village, for others part of a busy city. (Note: If your school is in a very isolated place, you may need to work with community members to arrange transport for pupils to a place where they can see a range of environmental print.) Notice every example of environmental print you can draw pupils’ attention to and plan a route for you and the pupils to walk. The kinds of print and visual images will, of course, vary greatly from one neighbourhood to another but may include names (e.g. school, clinic, mosque, church, community hall, shop, river, street); signs (e.g. a STOP sign); advertisements on billboards or the walls of shops; community notices (e.g. election posters or notices about meetings or social or sports events).

Step 3

Prepare a list of questions for pupils to answer. These could include:

  • What does this sign or name tell us?
  • Why do you think it has been placed here?
  • What language is it written in?
  • Why do you think it has been written in this language?
  • What information do you get from the drawings or photographs that you see?
  • Which signs are easy to read? Why?
  • Which signs do you like? Why?
  • How could you improve some of the signs?
  • What other names, signs, advertisements, posters, notices would you like to have in this neighbourhood? Why would you like to have these?

Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources:

A traditional lullaby from Buganda – central Uganda – as collected by music teacher Robinah Nazziwa

Yellow butter – Traditional rhymes/songs; New Successful English, Grade 6, Reading Book, Oxford University Press

Song of the animal world – Traditional song from the Congo, African Poetry for Schools, Longman

Every effort has been made to contact copyright holders. If any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

Section 2: Stimulating interest in reading stories

Key Focus Question: How can you stimulate pupils to want to read stories and books?

Keywords: shared reading; creative responses; silent reading; beginnings and endings; stimulating interest

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will have:

  • used shared reading of stories in your teaching to support developing readers;
  • used activities that focus on alternative beginnings and endings to stimulate interest in reading;
  • explored different ways to promote sustained silent reading (SSR) in your classroom.

Introduction

Pupils are more likely to learn how to read successfully if they enjoy reading and read as often as possible. If you asked your friends what they enjoy reading, their answers might vary from newspaper sports pages to recipes, romantic novels, detective stories or biographies – or they might not read much at all! Like your friends, different pupils may enjoy reading different kinds of texts. They will respond to what they read in different ways. Your task is to motivate all the pupils in your class to read successfully and to enjoy reading.

This section focuses on helping pupils to find pleasure in reading and responding to stories.

1. Reading aloud

The kinds of stories and story-reading activities that pupils enjoy are likely to vary according to their age and their knowledge of the language in which the stories are written. Younger pupils and pupils who are just beginning to learn an additional language enjoy having a good story read to them several times – particularly if they have opportunities to participate in the reading. By reading a story several times and by encouraging pupils to read parts of the story with you, you are helping them to become familiar with new words and to gain confidence as readers.

The focus of Activity 1 is preparing and teaching a shared reading lesson. The aims of this activity are to increase your confidence and skills as a reader and to get pupils ‘hooked on books’.

Case Study 1: Using childhood experiences of stories to prepare classroom activities

When Jane Dlomo thought about her childhood in the Eastern Cape of South Africa, she remembered how much she had enjoyed her grandmother’s stories. Two things stood out in her memory: firstly, how much she enjoyed hearing the same stories over and over again and secondly, how much she and her brothers and sisters enjoyed joining in with the stories. Sometimes her grandmother asked, ‘What do you think happened next?’ Sometimes she asked the children to perform actions.

Jane decided to make her reading lessons with Grade 4 pupils more like her grandmother’s story performances. She also decided to experiment with activities that would involve pupils in sharing the reading with her and with one another. When she told her colleague Thandi about her decision, Thandi suggested that they work together to find suitable storybooks, practise reading the stories aloud to each other and think of ways of involving the pupils in the reading. Both teachers found that sharing the preparation helped them to be more confident in the classroom (see Resource 1: Preparation for shared reading).

Activity 1: Sharing the pleasures of a good storybook

Read Resource 1 and follow the steps below.

  • Prepare work on other tasks for some pupils to do while you do shared reading with a group of 15 to 20.
  • Establish any background knowledge about the topic of the story before reading it.
  • As you read, show pupils the illustrations and ask questions about them. Use your voice and actions to hold pupils’ attention.
  • Invite pupils to join in the reading by repeating particular words or sentences that you have written on the chalkboard and by performing actions.
  • At the end, discuss the story with your pupils. (See Resource 2: Questions to use with book readings.)

How did you feel about your reading of the story?

Did pupils enjoy the story? How do you know?

What can you do to develop your story reading skills?

2. Using writing to encourage reading

The child psychologist Bruno Bettelheim (1976) believes that if children find ‘magic’ in stories, they will really want to learn to read. He argues that if a child believes strongly that being able to read will open up a world of wonderful experiences and understanding, they will make a greater effort to learn to read and will keep on reading.

Sharing interesting stories with pupils is one way for a teacher to make reading a magical experience. Stimulating curiosity and imagination by encouraging them to create alternative endings (and sometimes beginnings) to stories and to share these with their classmates is another. Case Study 2 and Activity 2 describe how you can help your pupils to become story makers for one another.

Case Study 2: Reading stories; writing new story endings

Mrs Miriam Muwai teaches English to Standard 6 in a Nairobi school. One day, she asked her pupils to think about the stories they had read with her and to tell her which story ending they liked best and which they found disappointing or unsatisfactory. She found they had different favourite stories. However, there was one story that most pupils didn’t like because they didn’t know what happened to three characters that ‘disappeared’ from it. Miriam asked them to suggest what could have happened to these characters and wrote their ideas on the chalkboard. Then she asked pupils to choose one of the three characters and to write an ending to this character’s part in the story. She encouraged pupils to use their own ideas, as well as those from the chalkboard, and to include drawings with their writing. Then she reread the story to remind them of the setting, the characters and the main events.

Although Miriam asked pupils to write individually, she also encouraged them to help each other with ideas, vocabulary and spelling. She moved around the room while pupils were writing and drawing, helping where needed. She was very pleased to find that most of her pupils really liked the idea of being authors and of writing for a real audience (their classmates). She noticed that they were taking a great deal of care with their work because their classmates would be reading it.

In the next lesson, when they read each other’s story endings, she observed that most of her ‘reluctant readers’ were keen to read what their classmates had written and see what they had drawn.

Activity 2: Writing new beginnings and endings to stories

Write on your chalkboard the short story in Resource 3: A story. Omit the title and the last two sentences.

  • Read the story with your pupils. Discuss any new words.
  • Ask them to answer questions such as those in Resource 3.
  • Organise the class to work in fours – two to write a beginning to the story and two to write an ending. Each pair does a drawing to illustrate their part of the story. (This may take more than one lesson.)
  • Ask each group to read their whole story to the class and to display their drawings. Discuss with pupils what they like about each other’s stories.
  • Finally, read the title and the last two sentences of the original story to your class. (They are likely to be surprised that it’s about soccer!)
  • Find another story to repeat the exercise.

How well did this activity work?

How did the pupils respond to each other’s stories?

3. Encouraging individual reading

Teachers should be good role models for pupils. Your pupils are likely to become more interested in reading if they see you reading. Try to make time each day (or at least three times a week if that is all you can manage) for you and your pupils to read silently in class. You can adapt this depending on the age and stage of your pupils. For example, young pupils could look at a picture book with a partner or listen to someone reading with them in small groups.

Extensive or sustained silent reading (SSR) helps pupils become used to reading independently and at their own pace (which may be faster or slower than some of their classmates). The focus is on the whole story (or on a whole chapter if the story is a very long one) and on pupils’ personal responses to what they read. SSR can be done with a class reader, with a number of different books that pupils have chosen from a classroom or school library, or with newspapers and magazines (if pupils can manage these) – see Resource 4: Sustained silent reading.

Case Study 3 and the Key Activity suggest ways to assess pupils’ progress as readers. (See also Key Resource: Assessing learning.)

Case Study 3: Teachers’ experience of sustained silent reading

A workshop was held in Naivasha, Kenya, to introduce teachers to sustained silent reading (SSR). It was explained that one of the main aims of SSR is to create a ‘culture of reading’ among pupils.

Teachers were invited to participate in SSR and then to reflect on their experiences. Each teacher chose a book or magazine and read silently for 20 minutes. After this, they had ten minutes of discussion with three fellow readers about what they had read and how they responded to the text. When they returned their books and magazines, they signed their names in the book register and, next to their names, wrote a brief comment about the text.

These teachers decided that SSR is useful for developing concentration and self-discipline, for learning new vocabulary and new ideas and for providing content for discussions with other pupils. They thought their pupils would enjoy this activity and be proud when they finished reading a book. Some teachers decided to try this with a small group at a time and rotate around the class because they only had a few books in the class.

Key Activity: Sustained silent reading
  • Collect interesting books, magazines and stories that are at an appropriate level for your pupils. Involve pupils and community in collecting suitable texts or use books your pupils have made in class (see Resource 4).
  • Set aside 15–20 minutes every day or three times a week for sustained silent reading. Ask pupils to choose a text to read silently. Read yourself as they read.
  • At the end, if they have not finished their books, ask them to use bookmarks so they can easily find their places next time.
  • Ask each pupil to make or contribute to a reading record (see Resource 4).
  • Every week, ask pupils, in small groups, to tell each other about what they have been reading.
  • Move round the groups to listen to what pupils are saying. Check their reading records.

Do pupils enjoy this activity and are they making progress with their reading?

How can you help more?

Resources 1: Preparation for shared reading

Teacher resource for planning or adapting to use with pupils

Choose a story with characters and events that you think will interest your pupils.

Think about any background knowledge that pupils will need in order to understand and enjoy the story. Decide how to provide this before you begin the story reading. For example, young pupils in some parts of Africa would be familiar with a hippopotamus, but in others they may not be, so before reading the story Hot Hippo you would need to find out what pupils know by asking questions like these:

Questions to establish background knowledge:
  • What does a hippopotamus look like?
  • Would you be frightened of a hippopotamus? Why, or why not?
  • Where would you be likely to see one?
  • What does a hippopotamus eat?
First prediction question

This story is called Hot Hippo. Look at the drawing on the cover. (The drawing shows a hippopotamus trying to shelter under some palm leaves.) What do you think the story will be about?

Note: While these questions refer to the story Hot Hippo, similar questions could be asked about animals, people, places or activities in relation to any story.

Practise reading the story aloud before you use it in your classroom. Think about how to perform the voices of the characters and about the actions you can use to make the story come alive. If there are drawings with the story, decide how to use these when you read to your class.

Look for parts of the story where pupils can join in once they are familiar with the story. For example, in one story, Eddie the elephant tries to copy the actions of other animals or the actions of people and every time he fails he cries ‘Wah! Wah! Wah! Boo! Hoo! Hoo! I wish I knew what I could do!’ You could write a chorus like this on your chalkboard for pupils to follow.

Look out for places in the story where you could ask pupils some prediction questions, such as: ‘What do you think Eddie will do next?’ or ‘How could the Hot Hippo solve his problem?’

Resource 2: Questions to use with book readings – first, second and third readings

Teacher resource for planning or adapting to use with pupils

Here are a few questions you could ask before reading a story with pupils and then examples of questions to ask when the reading has been completed. There are also questions after they have read the book another time or more.

FIRST READING SESSION
Before reading
  1. Does the cover make you want to read this book? Why, or why not? What does the cover make you think the book is going to be about? How does it do this?
  2. Tell me about what you see on the first page of the story.
During reading

Ask questions about the development of the story and how the words and pictures contribute to this development.

After reading
  1. What did you like or dislike about this book?
  2. Is there anything that puzzled or surprised you about this book?
  3. Are there any patterns you have noticed?
  4. What is your favourite picture? Could you tell me what you see in this picture?
  5. Do you think the cover was appropriate (the right kind of cover) for what happened in the story?
  6. Do you find the words or the pictures more interesting? Do they tell the same story in different ways? Would the words still be good without the pictures? Would the pictures still be good without the words?
  7. Is the story told through the words, the pictures or both? Is it the same all the way through the book?
SECOND AND THIRD READING SESSIONS

(Note: These should be some weeks apart.)

Before reading
  1. Have you thought about the book since we last read it?
  2. Would you like to read it again?
  3. Tell me what you remember most about the book.
During reading

Again, ask questions about the development of the story and how the words and pictures contribute to this development.

After reading
  1. Did you notice anything this time that you didn’t notice before?
  2. How do you feel about this story after reading it again?
  3. When you think about the book now, what is the most important thing about it for you?

Having read the book more than once, would you recommend that other pupils read it more than once with their teacher?

Adapted from: Swain, C. The Primary English Magazine

Resource 3: A story

Teacher resource for planning or adapting to use with pupils

The Story

Write this story on the chalkboard, but do not write either the title or the last two sentences (‘He shot – low to the right. What a goal!’) on the board until the very last part of your lesson.

[Run for glory by Mark Northcroft (aged 12 years)]

On and on he ran. His legs felt like churning acid. He could hear his pursuers closing in on him. He felt he could not keep this up much longer but he knew he had to. The footsteps were gaining on him. ‘Faster! Faster!’ he cried. ‘I can’t! I can’t!’ he answered. Somewhere deep inside himself, he found a sudden surge of energy. Now he knew he could do it.

Suddenly a man approached him from out of nowhere. ‘Now or never,’ he thought.

[He shot – low to the right. What a goal!]

Notes

‘His legs felt like churning acid’ – This simile or comparison is not easy to explain but you could say that the man or boy felt pain in his legs as though he had a mixture of chemicals bubbling up in them.

‘pursuers’ – people who are following or chasing someone.

‘surge’ – a sudden, powerful movement.

‘energy’ – liveliness, capacity for activity.

Questions to ask pupils in preparation for writing an alternative beginning and ending to this story
  1. Who do you think ‘he’ is?
  2. Where do you think he is?
  3. What do you think is happening to him?
  4. Who is ‘a man’?
  5. What other people might be part of this story?
  6. What might have happened before this part of the story?
  7. What might happen next?

Resource 4: Sustained silent reading

Background information / subject knowledge for teacher

Developing sustained silent reading (SSR) in your classroom is important in encouraging your pupils to want to read and developing their reading skills. For SSR to succeed requires some careful planning ahead. You will need to gather together resources for your class or a group to read. These could be articles from newspapers or magazines, books, etc. You need to be resourceful to gather these and also to store them so they are not lost or damaged.

If you have enough resources for your whole class, you could do SSR once a week at the start or end of the day. If you only have a limited number of resources, you could do it with one group each day and also work with your class to make more class books to read.

Questions to ask

These are examples of questions that could be asked about many different kinds and levels of storybooks, but you may prefer to ask pupils for just a brief comment.

  1. What happens in the first part (introduction, beginning) of the story?
  2. What happens in the middle part (where there are complications or conflicts in the story)?
  3. What happens at the end (resolution)?
  4. Is there a problem that needs to be solved?
  5. What is the goal of the main character or characters?
  6. What happens to the characters in the different parts of the story? What difficulties do they face?
  7. Have similar things ever happened to you?
  8. If their first attempt is unsuccessful, do the main characters get another chance to achieve their goal?
  9. What happens to the characters at the end?
  10. How do you feel about this story? Did it make you think about your own life or anyone else’s? If so, in what way(s)?
Keeping a reading record

As pupils carry out SSR it is useful for them to keep records of the books they have read and to comment on what they did or did not like about them. It is also a way of seeing what breadth of material they are reading and the kinds of things that interest them. It tells you how much they are reading, especially if you encourage them to also include books, newspapers, magazines, etc. that they read at home or elsewhere. With newspapers and magazines, you may suggest they only add these when they read them regularly and say how often they read them. They may want to include articles from particular magazines.

Keeping a record must not become a bore, as this will put pupils off reading. Each record should only include the title and author and maybe publisher if you wish to add the book to the class collection (if you have a budget). The pupil could say if they liked the book and why, and if they’d recommend it to others to read.

The record could be a class one, where the title of each book in the library is on the top of a sheet of paper and every time someone reads this book they sign the list and put in a short comment. Another way is for each pupil to have a page at the back of an exercise book where they keep a list of the books they have read and every time they finish a book or give up on a book they make a comment next to the title and author. It would be useful if these entries are dated, so you can see how often they are finishing a book etc.

Collecting and displaying materials for SSR

If you need to start your own classroom library, the first requirement is to collect books and magazines. There are organisations that can help schools obtain books. Here are some useful contacts.

  • Africa Book Centre
  • Website: http://www.africabookcentre.com
  • Kenya Publishers Association
  • P O Box 42767
  • 00100 Nairobi
  • Longhorn Publishers
  • Website: http://www.longhornbooks.co.ke
  • East African Educational Publishers
  • Tel: +254 4451530/1/3
  • Email: [email protected]
  • Website: http://www.eastafricanpublishers.com
  • Macmillan Kenya Publishers Ltd
  • Kijabe Street
  • P O Box 30797
  • 00100 Nairobi
  • Tel: +254 0 220012
  • Website: http://www.macmillan.com
  • Kenya Literature Bureau
  • P O Box 30022
  • 000100 Nairobi
  • Tel: +254 244847
  • Email: [email protected]
  • Website: http://www.kenyaliteraturebureau.com
  • Jomo Kenyatta Foundation
  • P O Box 30533
  • 00100 Nairobi

For more information on SSR, the following website is also useful: http://www.trelease-on-reading.com

Sometimes the embassies of foreign countries or organisations linked to embassies, such as the British Council, are able to make donations of books. Service organisations such as Rotary Clubs also collect and donate books. If you cannot contact any organisation for assistance, then try asking colleagues and friends to donate books and magazines that their children or other family members have finished with. Some schools ask parents to help teachers to organise fundraising events and then they use the money that is raised to buy books. Key Resource: Being a resourceful teacher in challenging conditions explores this further.

Once you have enough books and magazines for all the pupils in your class to read individually, you need to think about how to look after these precious materials. If you have, or could make (or get someone else to make), some shelves for one side or the back of your classroom, you could then display the books and magazines in order to attract pupils’ interest. In an exercise book, write down the titles of the books and magazines so that you can keep track of them. At the end of each SSR period, watch carefully to check that pupils return the books to the shelf.

If you do not have shelves, then pack the books and magazines carefully into boxes. You may like to choose some pupils to be book monitors to help you distribute books from the boxes at the beginning of the reading period and to pack them away at the end.

Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources:

Resource 2 : Adapted from: Swain, C. The Primary English Magazine

For more information on SSR, the following website is also useful: http://www.trelease-on-reading.com

Every effort has been made to contact copyright holders. If any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

Section 3: Ways of reading and responding to information texts

Key Focus Question: How can you develop your questioning skills to help pupils use information texts effectively?

Keywords: information texts; comprehension; summary; questions; assessment

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will have:

  • developed your ability to create questions and tasks that encourage close reading of texts and personal responses;
  • explored ways to teach pupils how to read and write about information presented in different forms;
  • helped your pupils develop the skills needed to summarise texts;
  • used these strategies to assess learning.

Introduction

In ‘the information age’ we all need to be able to read and respond to information presented in many different forms. Reading information from a chart or diagram requires different skills from reading a story.

As a teacher, your role is to help pupils understand what they read, summarise the main ideas in a text and respond with their own ideas. While it is important for pupils to be able to write answers to questions on what they have read, some will produce better work if they have opportunities to demonstrate what they understand through other activities, e.g. making posters or pie charts.

This section suggests ways to help pupils develop their comprehension and summarising skills.

1. Reading for understanding

Comprehension exercises are very common, but how well do they extend pupils’ reading skills?

Case Study 1 demonstrates that you need to think very carefully about whether the ‘reading comprehension’ questions in textbooks really help you to know what pupils have understood from their reading. You need to create questions or activities that require pupils to read information texts carefully. Activity 1 gives you some examples to try out and use as models when designing your own questions and activities. Key Resource: Using questioning to promote thinking gives further ideas.

Case Study 1: Rethinking ‘reading comprehension’

At a workshop in Lusaka, Zambia, teachers of English as an additional language read a nonsense text and answered questions on it. The first sentence in this text was: ‘Some glibbericks were ogging blops onto a mung’ and the first ‘comprehension’ question was ‘Who were ogging blops onto a mung?’ Every teacher knew that the answer was ‘some glibbericks’. In their discussion, they realised they could give the ‘correct’ answer because they knew that in English, ‘some glibbericks’ was the subject of this sentence. They didn’t need to know who or what a glibberick was, in order to give the answer!

After the discussion, they worked in small groups to design questions and tasks that would show them whether or not pupils had understood the texts on which these questions and tasks were based. They learned that questions should not allow pupils to just copy information from one sentence in the text. They designed tasks in which pupils had to complete a table, design a poster or make notes to use in a debate as ways of showing what they had learned from reading a text.

They reflected that the questions they asked and the tasks they set meant they could better assess their pupils’ understanding.

Activity 1: Comprehending and responding to information texts
  • Read Resource 1: Text on litter. Make copies of the article and tasks or write the paragraphs and tasks on your chalkboard.
  • Cover them over.
  • Before pupils read the article, ask some introductory questions. Your questions should help pupils to connect what they already know to the new information in the article (see Resource 2: Introductory questions). If your pupils are young or you need to read the text to them, you could write their answers on the board.
  • Next, uncover the article and tasks, and ask pupils to read the article in silence and write answers to the tasks. When they have finished, collect their books and assess their answers.
  • Return the books and/or give the whole class oral feedback on what they did well and discuss any difficulties they experienced. (See Resource 1 for suggested answers to the tasks.)
  • In the next lesson, ask pupils to work in small groups to design an ‘anti-litter’ poster and display it in class (see Resource 3: Good posters).

2. Reading charts and diagrams

Think about all the kinds of information texts that you read. Whether these are in the pages of textbooks, in advertising leaflets or on computer screens, they frequently include diagrams, charts, graphs, drawings, photographs or maps. To be successful as readers, you and your pupils need to understand how words, figures and visual images (such as photographs or drawings) work together to present information. Many writers on education now stress the importance of visual literacy. Learning how to read and respond to photographs and drawings is one part of becoming visually literate. Reading and responding to charts, graphs and diagrams is another. Bar and pie charts are some of the easier charts to understand and to make in order to summarise information.

Case Study 2: Making a pie chart to represent the number of pupil birthdays in each month of the year

Miss Maria Bako likes to make each pupil in her Primary 6 class of 60 pupils feel special. In her classroom she has a large sheet of paper with the month and day of each pupil’s birthday. On each birthday, the pupils sing Happy Birthday to their classmate. One day, a pupil commented that in some months they sing the birthday song much more often than others. Maria decided to use this comment to do some numeracy and some visual literacy work on pie charts.

First, she wrote the names of the months on her chalkboard and then she asked pupils to tell her how many of them had birthdays in each month. She wrote the number next to the month (e.g. January 5; February 3, and so on).

Then she drew a large circle on the board and told pupils to imagine that this was a pie and that as there were 60 in the class there would be 60 sections in the pie, one for each pupil. The sections would join to make slices. There would be 12 slices, because there are 12 months in a year. Each slice would represent the number of pupils who had their birthday in a particular month, but each slice would be a different size. She began with the month with most birthdays – September. In September, 12 pupils had birthdays.

Pupils quickly got the idea of making 12 slices of different sizes within the circle to represent the number of birthdays in each month as a percentage of the class. They copied the birthday pie chart into their books and made each slice a different colour.

The class talked about other information they could put into a pie chart and decided to explore how many pupils played different sports, how many supported each team in the national soccer league and how many pupils spoke the different languages used in their area.

Activity 2: Comprehending and making a pie chart

Copy the pie chart in Resource 4: A pie chart onto your chalkboard.

Ask pupils to suggest why this is called a pie chart.

Write out the questions (part b) about the pie chart on your chalkboard and ask pupils to work in pairs to answer them.

Discuss the answers with the class.

Use your chalkboard to show pupils how to turn these answers into a paragraph about Iredia’s weekend. Ask pupils to draw the pie chart.

For homework, ask pupils to draw their own pie charts to show how they usually spend their time at weekends.

After checking the homework, ask pupils to exchange their chart with a partner and to write a paragraph about their partner’s weekend.

What have you learned from these activities?

What relevant activity could you do next? (Look at Resource 4 for some ideas.)

3. Learning how to summarise

Learning to find and summarise the main ideas in the chapters of textbooks and other study materials becomes increasingly important as pupils move up through the school. These skills take practice to acquire.

The Key Activity and Resource 5: Text on the baobab give examples of ways to help pupils learn how to summarise information texts. You will need to do such activities many times. For older pupils, you could ask colleagues to show you what the pupils you teach are required to read in other subjects such as social studies or science. You could then use passages from social studies or science textbooks for summary work in the language classroom by following the steps in the Key Activity.

Case Study 3: Summarising key points from textbook chapters

The pupils in Mal Adamu Jibo’s Primary 6 class were anxious about the forthcoming examinations. They told him they didn’t really understand what their teachers meant when they told the pupils to ‘revise’ the chapters in their textbooks. Adamu decided to use an information text from their English textbook to give his class some ideas about how to find and write down the main points in a text.

He asked his pupils to tell him the purpose of the table of contents, chapter headings and sub-headings in their textbooks. It was clear from their silence that many pupils had not thought about this. A few were able to say that these give readers clues about the main topics in the book. Adamu told the pupils that in order to revise a chapter, they should write the sub-headings on paper, leaving several lines between each one. Then they should read what was written in the textbook under one sub-heading, close their books and try to write down the key points of what they had just read.

Next, they should check their written notes against the book and make changes to their notes by adding anything important they had left out or crossing out anything they had written incorrectly. Adamu said that some pupils prefer to make notes in the form of a mind map in which there are connections between important points. (See Resource 5 and Key Resource: Using mind maps and brainstorming to explore ideas) He showed them how to do this.

Finally, he reminded them to ask their teachers to explain anything they had not understood. Adamu also told them how he made notes of what he found out about his pupils and their learning to help him plan more lessons.

Key Activity: Developing summarising skills

Before the lesson, copy the text from Resource 5 on the baobab tree or write it on your chalkboard. Try out the activities yourself first.

  • Showing pupils some newspaper and magazine pages, ask why the articles have headlines and what they tell the reader. Ask them to suggest why their textbooks have headings and sub-headings.
  • Ask pupils to read the information text about the baobab tree and to work in pairs to decide which paragraphs are on the same topic.
  • Ask them to write a heading that summarises the paragraph(s) on each topic.
  • Ask some pupils to read out their headings and write these on the chalkboard.
  • Agree which are the best headings for each set of paragraphs on the same topic.
  • Leave the ‘best’ headings on the board with some space under each one. Ask pupils to suggest key points from the paragraphs and record these.
  • Show pupils how to link headings and key points in a mind map to help them remember about baobab trees.

If you have time or prefer to use a shorter text, you do the same activities with your pupils using the text in Resource 6: On the Kapok tree.

Think about what pupils did well and what they found difficult and plan another session to deal with these.

Resources 1: Text on litter

Teacher resource for planning or adapting to use with pupils

Litter

Litter is any kind of ‘left-over’ or waste product that people do not put in its proper place, such as a rubbish bin. People who simply drop waste such as fruit peel or empty cans on the ground are guilty of littering. We sometimes call these people litter bugs.

Litter does not just happen

People are responsible for litter. An item of waste, such as the wrapping from a bar of chocolate, is not litter if it has been placed in a rubbish bin. It becomes litter when someone drops it on the ground, leaves it lying on the ground where he or she has been sitting or throws it out of a window.

Litter can be dangerous to people

Broken glass and sharp rusty cans that are left in places where people walk – and especially where young children play – can cut them. These cuts can lead to serious infections. Fruit and vegetable waste is sometimes slippery and if people step on it they may fall and break an arm or a leg. Litter can be a cause of road accidents when drivers try to move their cars or trucks out of the way of sharp objects that could cut their tyres. Plastic bags and pieces of cardboard sometimes blow onto the windscreens of vehicles and stop drivers from seeing clearly.

Litter can be dangerous to animals and birds

Glass and cans may also cut the feet or mouths of domestic or wild animals while they are grazing. Nylon fishing line that is thrown on the ground or into water can get wrapped around the beaks or legs of birds and cause them to die because they can no longer move or eat. Sea creatures, such as seals and sharks, may get caught up in old fishing nets. If they cannot free themselves they will also die.

The dangers of plastic

Plastic litter causes problems for fish, birds and people. In rivers and the sea it can be harmful to fish because they can get caught up in it and not break free. Plastic bags on beaches have led to the deaths of many seagulls. Even loosely woven bags, which vegetables and fruit are sometimes packaged in, can be harmful to birds. They get inside these and cannot find a way out, as the material is very tough. Pieces of plastic or plastic bags can get caught in the outboard motors of boats and can cause the motor to stop working.

If we want to keep our country clean and beautiful and to protect our people and our wildlife, we must not throw litter. It is not difficult to throw a can, bottle, plastic bag or piece of paper into a bin rather than on to the ground.

Writing tasks based on Litter
  1. List seven kinds of litter that are mentioned in the article. (To answer this question successfully pupils need to find information in several different paragraphs, so they have to read carefully.)
  2. Explain what the word litter means. (Pupils could copy an answer from the first paragraph of the text without really understanding what the word means but the next question can help you to check their understanding because you are asking them to use a word or words from other languages that they know – for many pupils their home language.)
  3. What is the word (or words) for litter in any other languages that you know?
  4. List three kinds of litter that are harmful to birds. (Birds are mentioned several times in the passage, not just in the paragraph with the heading that includes birds. Pupils need to find each reference to birds and then link this to different types of litter and the problems these cause.)
  5. In your own words, describe three of the ways in which people can be harmed by litter. (Pupils should use the sub-heading to guide them and then try to express the content of the paragraph in their own words rather than just copying from the paragraph. This will help you to see if they have understood what they have read.)
  6. Do you agree with the writer that it is not difficult to throw waste into a rubbish bin? Give a reason for your answer. (This is a personal response question that encourages pupils to think critically and express their own ideas.)
  7. Suggest what else can be done with waste products such as glass, paper, plastic, fruit and vegetable peels. (This is also a personal response question and encourages class discussion about the environmental topic of recycling.)

Notice that the answers to questions 1 to 5 require pupils to read the text carefully whereas questions 6 and 7 require them to use their own ideas.

Answers to the writing tasks
  1. Fruit and vegetable peel, glass, cans, plastic, fishing line, paper, cardboard.
  2. Litter is waste material that people do not put in its proper place (such as a rubbish bin).
  3. Words from languages used in your class.
  4. Nylon fishing line, plastic bags, woven fruit and vegetable bags.
  5. People can cut themselves on broken glass or sharp cans. People can slip on fruit or vegetable waste and break an arm or leg. People can be involved in road accidents when drivers try to avoid litter in the road or when they can’t see because of litter blown onto the windscreen. People on water in motorboats may not be able to safely reach land if the motor of the boat is damaged by plastic. (Four ways are mentioned here.)
  6. This is a question to which pupils should be encouraged to give a variety of responses. For example, it is not possible to put waste in a rubbish bin if there are no bins in the school grounds or in the streets.
  7. This task gives you and the pupils an opportunity to discuss various forms of recycling. For example, vegetable and fruit peels can be put into a compost heap or dug straight into garden soil in order to enrich the soil. Plastic strips can be woven into useful mats for the floor. In some towns and cities, glass, cans and paper or cardboard can be taken to recycling facilities and people can even be paid for what they collect and bring to these places.

Adapted from Taitz, L. et al, New Successful English, Learner’s Book, Oxford University Press

Resource 2: Introductory questions

Teacher resource for planning or adapting to use with pupils

Ask these questions before reading starts in order to help pupils make connections between what they already know and what they are going to read about in the information text on litter.

  • Are there any kinds of rubbish in our school grounds or around our homes? If there are, what kinds?
  • How did the rubbish get there?
  • If there is no rubbish, what is the reason for the clean areas around our school grounds or homes?
  • What is another word for rubbish that lies on the ground in our school yard or street? (If pupils don’t know, point to ‘Litter’ on the chalkboard or in their copy of the article.)
  • What are some of the problems that litter can cause?

Resource 3: Good posters

Background information / subject knowledge for teacher

Features of good posters
  1. The whole sheet of paper is used.
  2. Words are in large print.
  3. Often the words are not whole sentences.
  4. Pictures should be simple, clear and powerful.
  5. The colour of the words and pictures should attract attention.
  6. The position of the words and the pictures on the sheet of paper should attract attention. (This is called the ‘layout’ of the poster.)
Steps to follow for lessons on designing and presenting posters and what pupils can learn from this activity
  1. Tell pupils that they are going to work in groups to design an ‘anti-litter’ poster.
  2. Begin with a whole-class discussion. What makes a good poster? What messages would be suitable for posters that encourage people to stop littering?
  3. Give each group a large sheet of paper or card and make sure they have pencils and pens.
  4. While the groups are working, move round the class to help where necessary and to take note of what pupils are learning.
  5. When groups have finished, ask each group to show their poster to the class and to talk about why they designed it in a particular way.
  6. Display the posters in your classroom or elsewhere in the school.

Pupils can demonstrate that they are learning:

  • how to work cooperatively in a small group;
  • how to design a poster;
  • new vocabulary;
  • what kinds of litter there are (by understanding information from the passage and by using their own experience);
  • what can be done to prevent littering;
  • how to talk about their posters.

Which kinds of learning have your pupils demonstrated?

How do you know this?

Where do they still need to improve?

How will you help them?

Resource 4: A pie chart

Teacher resource for planning or adapting to use with pupils

a) A pie chart: How Iredia spends his time at weekends
Basic information
  • 30% sleeping;
  • 15% visiting friends;
  • 15% playing soccer;
  • 5% helping in the house and garden;
  • 10% watching television;
  • 2% doing homework;
  • 5% making wire vehicles;
  • 10% visiting grandparents;
  • 8% eating.
b) Questions on the pie chart
  1. What does the pie chart tell us? (How Iredia spends his time at weekends.)
  2. What does Iredia spend the most time doing? (Sleeping.)
  3. What does he spend the least time doing? (Homework.)
  4. What does he do for the same amount of time as he watches television? (Visits grandparents.)
  5. What does he do for the same amount of time as helping in the house and garden? (Making wire vehicles.)
  6. When he is awake, what two things does Iredia spend the most time doing? (Visiting friends and playing soccer.)
  7. If you made a pie chart to show how you spend your weekend, would it be similar to Iredia’s or different? (Many possible answers.)

You could help pupils write about their partner’s weekend by designing a writing frame with them, or by agreeing an example paragraph together. Here are examples for use to use or adapt.

Writing frame for describing a partner’s weekend

X’s weekends

X likes/doesn’t like weekends.

He/she spends the greatest part of the weekend.

He/she usually. and sometimes.

On Saturday mornings.

On Saturday afternoons.

On Saturday evenings.

On Sunday mornings.

On Sunday afternoons.

On Sunday evenings.

c) Paragraph about Iredia’s weekends

Iredia loves weekends. He enjoys staying in his warm bed much later than on school mornings and taking his time over meals with the family. He spends the biggest part of his weekend visiting friends and playing soccer. He usually watches television with his family in the evenings and sometimes stays up very late to do this. On Saturday mornings he and his sisters help their parents with cleaning the house or working in the garden. After they have finished, his sisters like to go to the shops but Iredia either goes to his friends or spends some time making wire cars and trucks that he and his friends can race. Sometimes he takes his cars and trucks to show his grandparents when he visits them on Sundays. Usually he needs to find some time on Sunday evening to do his homework for Monday.

Some of the information in this paragraph cannot be gleaned from the chart. The author has made up bits based on their experience and the data given. You may wish to explore this with your pupils. Ask them what they can say from the chart and which parts are made up.

d) What you and your pupils can learn from these activities
  • To read information on a pie chart.
  • To compare one item of information on the chart with another.
  • To make a pie chart in order to summarise information.
  • To understand that the same information can be presented in different ways.
  • To use information from a pie chart to write a paragraph.
  • To learn ‘time expressions’ (e.g. ‘usually’, ‘sometimes’).
e) Ideas for further activities

To consolidate pupils’ learning about pie charts, they could make another one – perhaps about class birthdays or about sports teams they support or languages they speak. You could also decide to show them other ways of representing information such as a bar graph or a table if you have information about these. Your colleagues may be able to assist you here.

Resource 5: Text on the baobab

Teacher resource for planning or adapting to use with pupils

Before starting the Key Activity, you may wish to use Resource 1 as an example and discuss with your pupils how sub-headings can summarise key points.

The Baobab

The baobab is a very unusual tree. Some people think it is ugly because it is fat and for much of the year it has no leaves. It does not even seem to grow the right way up. In fact, some people who live in the land of the baobab say that it grows upside down with its branches in the earth and its roots in the air.

The baobab does things differently from other trees. Most trees use bees and birds to carry pollen grains from one tree to another so that the trees can be fertilised and make new flowers, fruit or nuts. The baobab uses bats. In early summer this tree produces big flowers with white petals. The flowers only open at night when the bats appear. The bats suck the nectar and transport the pollen from one tree to another on their wings and bodies.

Baobabs live for a very long time. Some of the largest baobabs may be over 3,000 years old.

The tree has many uses. In the past, some of the Khoi and San people of southern Africa used baobabs for their homes. They set fire to the soft insides of the trunk, making a hole big enough to live in. Even with this big hole in the trunk, the tree continued to live.

The bark of the tree has a number of uses. It can be used for making soft floor mats, paper and thread. The fibres of the bark make very strong rope.

Other parts of the tree also have their uses. If the roots are mashed, they make a soft porridge. The soft insides of the tree provide moisture for thirsty animals during the dry season. If the seeds are soaked in water for a few days, they produce a medicine that is very good for fevers. If the seeds are dried and ground up, they make a good but rather bitter coffee. If the leaves are boiled they become like cabbage and can be eaten.

There are many stories about the baobab. The people in Venda in southern Africa say that the trees were once the hiding place for evil spirits. Then a kind god came and tore the trees out of the ground and replanted them upside down. As a result, the evil spirits could no longer hide in the trees.

Other people believe that if you suck the seeds you will be safe from crocodiles, and if you drink a drink made from the bark you will grow to be big and powerful.

The baobab is a truly amazing tree. It is one of the marvels of Africa.

Suggested sub-headings for The Baobab text
  • Paragraph 1: What a baobab looks like
  • Paragraph 2: How pollen is transported between baobab trees
  • Paragraph 3: Lifespan
  • Paragraphs 4, 5, 6: Uses of the baobab
  • Paragraphs 7, 8: Stories and beliefs about baobabs

Note: There is no new information in the final paragraph. It provides a comment from the author, giving his or her opinion of this tree.