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About the author: John C Hill (1888 – 1943) is a famous British writer. He was educated at Harrow and Trinity College, and was eventually ordained as a priest.

Introduction: J. C. Hill’s “Good Manners” is an adaptation from his famous book “An Introduction to Citizenship”. In his essay “Good Manners”, the famous British writer John C. Hill stresses on the importance of thoughtfulness and courtesy towards common people. Human life on this planet is not permanent. Hence one must try, as far as possible, to behave politely and to help others.

Good manners are based on having sympathy for others and acknowledging one’s own limitations. We should strive to maintain cordial relations amongst one another.

Ans: Hill’s begins the essay with a story of a young man. Once there lived a young man who was very strong and healthy and carried on his work very actively. He was proud of his strength and had no sympathy for the “uninteresting folk” i.e. the old and the helpless people. One day he got an attack of influenza and became seriously ill. When he recovered, he became very weak. He could hardly walk. After a few days, he started working again. But he felt very tired while returning home from work. He felt sad looking at the strong young men sitting comfortably in the train or bus. It was then that he understood the misery of the weak and old people who were standing beside him throughout the journey. He realized that he will get back his strength after some days but those old people will never get back theirs. After recovering, he promptly gave up his seat for the weak and the aged in the bus or train. One should not feel proud of oneself and look down upon the weak.

Ans: Hill gives a beautiful illustration saying that supposing an old man is hesitating to cross the road when young cyclist is racing fast. The cyclist should not get irritated and call him an old fool. He should not scold him for walking slowly. The man may be weak and tired or he may not be able to see or listen well. In the past, he might have been a famous soldier in war or perhaps lost one leg. Someday the young cyclist may face a similar situation. How would he feel if some school boys made fun of him in his old age?

Ans. Hill wants all the young boys and girls to learn that they are all fragile little things in this dangerous world. We are staying on this planet only for a very short time. We will never see those who we live with again in our lives. During our short stay here, we should help the world as much as we can. So we should behave politely and try to please and help as many people as possible.

A child would not know about the sufferings of his parents, teachers or older people because they never disclose them. They might have experienced severe blows in life and may be very tired. But they never complain about them. Instead parents try to invest everything they have for the well being of their children. So children should make life easy for them. Good manners come from sympathy with others and from understanding our own limitations.

While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood. We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.

When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.

Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.

The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn’t always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.

Ans: Hill remarks that we should train ourselves to remain calm even if some persons ask us annoying or irritating questions. This is especially crucial in dealing with elderly people. We should also not take remarks too literally. Instead we should look for the real meaning in the statements.

Once an old lady asked a little boy whether he was a Boy Scout. He was irritated as his uniform was enough to tell that he was a Boy Scout. He rudely answered that he was ‘two eggs on toast’. Perhaps she only meant that he looked nice in his uniform and in fact there was really nothing silly in her remark. Such rude and impolite behaviour towards older people is incorrect.

Similarly, when a friend asks you, “You will not be going past the post office, will you?”, he actually expects you to go a little out of your way to oblige him. Try to help him if possible.

Ans: When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour.

Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.

We should not say unpleasant things about someone behind his back. Such remarks will usually find its way to that person. Always adjust your remarks as there’s always a possibility that the very person would be overhearing you. Hence never gossip about other people.

Ans: J C Hill advises us to understand ourselves before teasing or talking ill about others. Many times we fail to understand our selves. There is always a possibility of us being mistaken. People look at everything from their own perspective. J.C. Hill sites an example.

Some students were once shown a picture of a bull-fight and asked later to describe it from memory. One said, a bull’s tongue was out. Actually the bull’s mouth was closed, but because its head was turned to the side, its ear had looked like a tongue. So whenever we argue with somebody about a point, think that always there is always a chance of us going wrong. Hence we should take care of what we argue and speak. If we understand this truth, a lot of argument and anger could be avoided.

Ans: Good manners come from having sympathy with others and from understanding our own limitations. We should realize that our version of truth is always a part of the Larger Truth. We should realize that we are unimportant little people on this earth who are going to pass this earth only once. Hence we should give up pride and learn to be humble. We should try to help the world as much as we can in the short time that we are going to spend here.

Ans: Introduction: J. C. Hill’s “Good Manners” is an adaptation from his famous book “An Introduction to Citizenship”. In his essay “Good Manners”, the famous British writer John C. Hill stresses on the importance of thoughtfulness and courtesy towards common people. Human life on this planet is not permanent. Hence one must try, as far as possible, to behave politely and to help others.

Good manners are based on having sympathy for others and acknowledging one’s own limitations. We should strive to maintain cordial relations amongst one another.

Hill’s begins the essay with a story of a young man and points out that one should not feel proud of oneself and look down upon the weak.

Ans- In everyone’s life good manner plays an important role always. Good manner consists lots of qualities, we should never ignore it. Good manner is the real means sweetness of life.

According to J.C .Hill who has written this piece of prose entitled with “Good manner”. The Author advises us about a lot of manner which is most important in our life. He suggested us to help every old people . he talks about the perfect conversation and we should never feel bad or make any evil for anybody. so we can say that if someone consist these types of manner he should be a perfect civilised person. So Good Manner plays a very important role in our life.

Ans- J.C.Hill who wrote the prose piece entitled ‘good manner’ pointed out all the possible factors which can produce good manner. According to him compassion, understanding of one’s limitation and accommodation of other’s view point produce good manners. J.C.Hill refers to his illness and recovery but his weakness has been persisting for a long time. He feels that old people must be suffering from weakness. Sympathy for old people in the heart. He therefore suggests us to be sympathetic to the old people. He suggests us about the perfect conversation. The good qualities of a person produce good manners.

Ans- when we talk about the rule about conversation , then we should talk
on the basis of general rule and that is .we should not keep on talking and don’t allow the other persons to speak. If we are only two, one of us should share it equally. After speaking for a while we should keep quiet and allow the other to speak. If he does not respond it means he does not like the conversation and don’t want to be part of that. And at that time we should stop the conversation.

Ans- In J.C.Hill ‘s prose ‘Good Manner’ he says that what we very confidently call the truth is just out truth and part of a larger truth. What we say is never absolute truth for it has different meaning for different persons under different situations. In his words, Truth is never a one sided game. It takes to two to speak the truth one cannot speak the truth by saying what one thinks is truth. J.C Hill very nicely explained about Truth here in his prose Good Manners.

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11 May 2017

GOOD MANNERS – J.C.Hill

GOOD MANNERS – J.C.Hill

About the author: John C Hill (1888 – 1943) is a famous British writer. He was educated at Harrow and Trinity College, and was eventually ordained as a priest.

Introduction: J. C. Hill’s “Good Manners” is an adaptation from his famous book “An Introduction to Citizenship”. In his essay “Good Manners”, the famous British writer John C. Hill stresses on the importance of thoughtfulness and courtesy towards common people. Human life on this planet is not permanent. Hence one must try, as far as possible, to behave politely and to help others.

Good manners are based on having sympathy for others and acknowledging one’s own limitations. We should strive to maintain cordial relations amongst one another.

Hill begins the essay with a story of a young man. Once there lived a young man who was very strong and healthy and carried on his work very actively. He was proud of his strength and had no sympathy for the “uninteresting folk” i.e. the old and the helpless people. One day he got an attack of influenza and became seriously ill. When he recovered, he became very weak. He could hardly walk. After a few days, he started working again. But he felt very tired while returning home from work. He felt sad looking at the strong young men sitting comfortably in the train or bus. It was then that he understood the misery of the weak and old people who were standing beside him throughout the journey. He realized that he will get back his strength after some days but those old people will never get back theirs. After recovering, he promptly gave up his seat for the weak and the aged in the bus or train. One should not feel proud of him and look down upon the weak.

Hill begins the essay with a story of a young man. Once there lived a young man who was very strong and healthy and carried on his work very actively. He was proud of his strength and had no sympathy for the “uninteresting folk” i.e. the old and the helpless people. One day he got an attack of influenza and became seriously ill. When he recovered, he became very weak. He could hardly walk. After a few days, he started working again. But he felt very tired while returning home from work. He felt sad looking at the strong young men sitting comfortably in the train or bus. It was then that he understood the misery of the weak and old people who were standing beside him throughout the journey. He realized that he will get back his strength after some days but those old people will never get back theirs. After recovering, he promptly gave up his seat for the weak and the aged in the bus or train. One should not feel proud of him and look down upon the weak.

J.C.Hill gives a beautiful illustration saying that supposing an old man is hesitating to cross the road when young cyclist is racing fast. The cyclist should not get irritated and call him an old fool. He should not scold him for walking slowly. The man may be weak and tired or he may not be able to see or listen well. In the past, he might have been a famous soldier in war or perhaps lost one leg. Someday the young cyclist may face a similar situation. How would he feel if some school boys made fun of him in his old age?

Hill wants all the young boys and girls to learn that they are all fragile little things in this dangerous world. We are staying on this planet only for a very short time. We will never see those who we live with again in our lives. During our short stay here, we should help the world as much as we can. So we should behave politely and try to please and help as many people as possible.

A child would not know about the sufferings of his parents, teachers or older people because they never disclose them. They might have experienced severe blows in life and may be very tired. But they never complain about them. Instead parents try to invest everything they have for the well being of their children. So children should make life easy for them. Good manners come from sympathy with others and from understanding our own limitations.

While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood. We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.

When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.

Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.

The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn’t always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.

While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood. We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.

When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.

Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.

The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn’t always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.

While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood. We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.

When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.

Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.

The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn’t always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.

While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood. We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.

When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.

Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.

The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn’t always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.

While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood. We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.

When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.

Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.

The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn’t always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.

While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood. We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.

When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.

Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.

The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn’t always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.

Hill remarks that we should train ourselves to remain calm even if some persons ask us annoying or irritating questions. This is especially crucial in dealing with elderly people. We should also not take remarks too literally. Instead we should look for the real meaning in the statements.

Once an old lady asked a little boy whether he was a Boy, Scout or not. He was irritated as his uniform was enough to tell that he was a Boy Scout. He rudely answered that he was ‘two eggs on toast’. Perhaps she only meant that he looked nice in his uniform and in fact there was really nothing silly in her remark. Such rude and impolite behaviour towards older people is incorrect.

Similarly, when a friend asks you, “You will not be going past the post office, will you?” he actually expects you to go a little out of your way to oblige him. Try to help him if possible.

Hill remarks that we should train ourselves to remain calm even if some persons ask us annoying or irritating questions. This is especially crucial in dealing with elderly people. We should also not take remarks too literally. Instead we should look for the real meaning in the statements.

Once an old lady asked a little boy whether he was a Boy, Scout or not. He was irritated as his uniform was enough to tell that he was a Boy Scout. He rudely answered that he was ‘two eggs on toast’. Perhaps she only meant that he looked nice in his uniform and in fact there was really nothing silly in her remark. Such rude and impolite behaviour towards older people is incorrect.

Similarly, when a friend asks you, “You will not be going past the post office, will you?” he actually expects you to go a little out of your way to oblige him. Try to help him if possible.

When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well-mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behavior.

Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.

We should not say unpleasant things about someone behind his back. Such remarks will usually find its way to that person. Always adjust your remarks as there’s always a possibility that the very person would be overhearing you. Hence never gossip about other people.

J C Hill advises us to understand ourselves before teasing or talking ill about others. Many times we fail to understand our selves. There is always a possibility of us being mistaken. People look at everything from their own perspective. J.C. Hill sites an example.

Some students were once shown a picture of a bull-fight and asked later to describe it from memory. One said, a bull’s tongue was out. Actually the bull’s mouth was closed, but because its head was turned to the side, its ear had looked like a tongue. So whenever we argue with somebody about a point, think that always there is always a chance of us going wrong. Hence we should take care of what we argue and speak.

J C Hill advises us to understand ourselves before teasing or talking ill about others. Many times we fail to understand our selves. There is always a possibility of us being mistaken. People look at everything from their own perspective. J.C. Hill sites an example.

Some students were once shown a picture of a bull-fight and asked later to describe it from memory. One said, a bull’s tongue was out. Actually the bull’s mouth was closed, but because its head was turned to the side, its ear had looked like a tongue. So whenever we argue with somebody about a point, think that always there is always a chance of us going wrong. Hence we should take care of what we argue and speak.

Good manners come from having sympathy with others and from understanding our own limitations. We should realize that our version of truth is always a part of the larger truth. We should realize that we are unimportant little people on this earth who are going to pass this earth only once. Hence we must give up pride and learn to be humble. We should attempt to assist the world as much as we can in the short time that we are going to spend here.

J. C. Hill’s “Good Manners” is an adaptation from his famous book “An Introduction to Citizenship”. In his essay “Good Manners”, the famous British writer John C. Hill stresses on the importance of thoughtfulness and courtesy towards common people. Human life on this planet is not permanent. Hence one must try, as far as possible, to behave politely and to help others.

Good manners are based on having sympathy for others and acknowledging one’s own limitations. We should strive to maintain cordial relations among one another. Hill’s begins the essay with a story of a young man and points out that one should not feel proud of oneself and look down upon the weak.

Activities

The essay “Good Manners’ is adapted from the book An Introduction to Good Citizenship (1941) by J.C. Hill. If our attitudes and behaviour must change for the better as we grow up, we must be able to have a deeper understanding of human relationships and how they work. If one is open and willing to change one’s perspective then we become better individuals. Values that make us sensitive to other’s needs results in good manners. Hill discusses good manners in action, good manners in speech, and in general behaviour.

Good Manners

J. C. Hill

There was once a young man who was strong and healthy and enjoyed his work. In every way he felt on top of life, and had no sympathy for the uninteresting folk who seemed to form such a large proportion of the population. One day he got an attack of influenza. He had had it before and paid little attention to it, but this time he developed pneumonia and was dangerously ill. When he recovered he could only move slowly. He was easily tired and life became difficult for him. When he was well enough to go to work he found the journey home very trying. He looked at the young men sitting comfortably in the train or bus, and he was feeling tired himself, he noticed how tired some of the older people who were standing beside him looked. Gradually he got strong again, but when he was in a train or bus he now looked round to see if there was any older person in need of a seat, and if there was he gave up his. ‘I’ve got my strength back now,’ he said to himself; ‘these older people will never have their strength again.’

When you are cycling and see an old man hesitating on a crossing, don’t call him an old fool. He may not hear very well, or he may not see clearly, or he may have become tired with walking. Perhaps he was a famous soldier in the War and his wounds are still painful, or perhaps he has an artificial leg. One day you may go to a war and be severely injured. What will you think if schoolboys make fun of you because you can only move slowly?

One of the things all boys and girls are going to learn before very long is that they are fragile little things in a dangerous world. Your parents and your teachers and all older people have had some severe blows already. They get more severe blows every year. Most of them would give all the money they have to get your health and strength, your good teeth and nice hair. You have no idea how tired they are at times, but because they do not complain you think everything is all right. Well, try to make life easy for them so far as you can, and when it is your turn to suffer you will feel happier for having helped when you could.

Good manners are also important when you are with your own friends. When you speak to anyone, speak clearly and sufficiently loudly for the person to hear. It is an insult to a person to ask his attention and then speak so that he does not understand you. And remember it is your responsibility to make yourself understood. An American writer called Thoreau said, ‘It takes two to speak the truth- one to speak, and another to hear.’ This is a very the truth important saying, and it would save a great deal of argument and annoyance in life if people paid attention to it. “It takes two to speak the truth.’ You cannot speak the truth by saying what think is the truth. You have to express it differently for different people. To some people ‘socialism’ means taking money from those who have money and giving it to those who have none. To other people, ‘socialism’ means State control of industry and commerce. To others we cannot tell a man ‘the truth about socialism’ until you know what he understands by the term to you say, ‘I believe in socialism’, and he understands that you mean you believe in robbery, you must not be surprised if he takes a dislike to you; and if that is not what you mean, you did not speak the truth. If a man says to a friend, ‘Good morning, Mr. A.’, and the friend replies, ‘It’s not a good morning at all, is that the truth, even if the morning is bad?

Sometimes people ask very tiresome questions and we like to make a joke about it. Are you a Boy Scout?’ said a lady to a boy wearing shorts, a jersey with badges, a Scout’s hat, and carrying a Boy Scout pole. “No,’ said the little fellow, I’m two eggs on toast.’ The lady only meant, however, ‘How nice you look in your uniform; that is the Scout uniform, isn’t it?’ and there was really nothing silly in her remark.

It is only stupid people who take remarks too literally, as we say; that is, who do not look for the real meaning in the statements people make. Thus, when a friend says, ‘You will not be going past the post office, will you?’ he may mean, ‘I should be grateful if you would post a letter for me if it is not too much trouble. If you say ‘No’ to the question because you are not going past the post office, it means to your friend that you are not willing to go out of your way even a little to oblige him.

It is not always easy in company to speak frankly, and if you don’t want to be considered a bad-mannered person, you have watch constantly for signs. It is not easy, for example, to listen to long to any one person. Try in company to take only a fair s of the conversation. If there are two of you, take half of it. W you have said a little, keep quiet, and give your friend a chance say something. If he does not talk, he probably does not want you to talk either. Many a young man or woman talks away, thinking the company is delighted to hear him or her, and everyone is really exhausted and angry.

Don’t think you can say unpleasant things about someone behind his back and not be found out. It is surprising how the remarks usually find their way to the person with your name watched, so to speak. Whatever you say, always assume that the person may overhear, and adjust your remarks accordingly. All experienced people act in this way.

Now here is one of the most surprising things in life: no man really understands himself. What a lot of argument and anger we should be saved if people would only understand this! Suppose, for example, you saw a motor accident and were giving evidence about what happened. You would feel perfectly confident, perhaps, that the car which knocked the boy over was a blue car; another person would be equally confident that it was a grey car; and someone else that it was a black car.

Experiments are sometimes made by experts to find out how many errors people do make in their statements. Here is one experiment which was tried. Some students at a university were shown on a screen a picture of a bull-fight. They were then asked to write a short account of what they had seen. When this was finished they were told to put a number on every statement made—1. if they thought so; 2. if they were fairly sure about it; 3. if they were quite sure and 4. if they were prepared to swear to the statement on oath. Every student had at least ten per cent errors in the statements he was prepared to swear to an oath, and considerably more than ten per cent in all the other groups.

Now how does this happen? Here, for example, was one mistake. A student saw the bull having its tongue out. He was quite sure about it. Yet when he was shown the picture again, he saw that the bull’s mouth was closed, but that, because its head was turned to the side, the ear looked like the tongue. So whenever you are arguing with someone about a point, remember that there is quite a good chance that you are wrong, however confident you feel about it.

Good manners come from having sympathy with others and understanding our own limitations. “The truth’ is too big for any one of us to understand. “The truth’ as we see it is only our truth and part of a larger truth. We should always realise that we are humble, unimportant little people on this earth and try to help the world as much as we can in our short time here. ‘I expect to pass through this world but once. Any good, therefore, that I can do, or any kindness that I can show to any fellow creature, let me do it now. Let me not defer or neglect it, for I shall not pass this way again.’