How to Write an Essay Without Using I
Although it’s all about you, it really isn’t if you want to get your point across with good effect. Keeping clear of using the first-person point of view in an important composition, such as an essay, cover letter or thesis can feel like a daunting endeavor. However, there are a few ways to write around the first-person conundrum that can send fledgling essayists over the edge.
Explore this article
1 Cardinal Rules
Why is it such a no-no to interject an “I” or two into your work? If you pepper your paper with first-person references, you make the work appear less objective. The reader is turned off by your constant reference to yourself because it can make you sound biased. Stand on the facts and let them fly while presenting them in the second person. Rely on the names of authors, institutions you’ve worked for and titles of major works to present your case.
In some cases, you may find yourself absolutely stuck with referring to yourself. In that case, you can refer to yourself in the third person, such as “In this writer’s opinion” or “This author concludes” to avoid using the lowly “I” that tears the reader’s attention away from the point. Dump the passive voice for stronger sentence structure. For example, “I gathered the results” is changed to “The results were gathered.”
Often, you can turn the perspective around to avoid using the first person. If you find yourself discussing yourself, return the reader to the subject at hand by saying, “This thesis will reveal” rather than “I will describe in this thesis.”
Be direct in your statements and avoid interjecting your opinion. The information should be strong enough to stand on its own without your opinion supporting it into fact.
2 When to Use the Second Person
It’s not ideal, but there are a few instances in which using second-person references can work to your advantage. Be careful, though, as using the second person “you” gives a more conversational connotation to your piece. This can be welcome in some instances, but it can also throw the reader off your subject and downplay the strength of your work. Alternatives to “you” can be “people,” “one” or “the reader.” This is best used for academic works where the second person “you” may lessen the impact of your work.
Take your time and go through your finished piece to find all references to the first person, including “I,” “me” and “mine.” Rework the sentence with the suggestions above and you’ll have a stronger piece overall. Remember to emphasize the experience, event, article or business before interjecting yourself.
Should I Use “I”?
This handout is about determining when to use first person pronouns (“I”, “we,” “me,” “us,” “my,” and “our”) and personal experience in academic writing. “First person” and “personal experience” might sound like two ways of saying the same thing, but first person and personal experience can work in very different ways in your writing. You might choose to use “I” but not make any reference to your individual experiences in a particular paper. Or you might include a brief description of an experience that could help illustrate a point you’re making without ever using the word “I.” So whether or not you should use first person and personal experience are really two separate questions, both of which this handout addresses. It also offers some alternatives if you decide that either “I” or personal experience isn’t appropriate for your project. If you’ve decided that you do want to use one of them, this handout offers some ideas about how to do so effectively, because in many cases using one or the other might strengthen your writing.
Expectations about academic writing
Students often arrive at college with strict lists of writing rules in mind. Often these are rather strict lists of absolutes, including rules both stated and unstated:
- Each essay should have exactly five paragraphs.
- Don’t begin a sentence with “and” or “because.”
- Never include personal opinion.
- Never use “I” in essays.
We get these ideas primarily from teachers and other students. Often these ideas are derived from good advice but have been turned into unnecessarily strict rules in our minds. The problem is that overly strict rules about writing can prevent us, as writers, from being flexible enough to learn to adapt to the writing styles of different fields, ranging from the sciences to the humanities, and different kinds of writing projects, ranging from reviews to research.
So when it suits your purpose as a scholar, you will probably need to break some of the old rules, particularly the rules that prohibit first person pronouns and personal experience. Although there are certainly some instructors who think that these rules should be followed (so it is a good idea to ask directly), many instructors in all kinds of fields are finding reason to depart from these rules. Avoiding “I” can lead to awkwardness and vagueness, whereas using it in your writing can improve style and clarity. Using personal experience, when relevant, can add concreteness and even authority to writing that might otherwise be vague and impersonal.
Because college writing situations vary widely in terms of stylistic conventions, tone, audience, and purpose, the trick is deciphering the conventions of your writing context and determining how your purpose and audience affect the way you write. The rest of this handout is devoted to strategies for figuring out when to use “I” and personal experience.
Effective uses of “I”:
In many cases, using the first person pronoun can improve your writing, by offering the following benefits:
- Assertiveness: In some cases you might wish to emphasize agency (who is doing what), as for instance if you need to point out how valuable your particular project is to an academic discipline or to claim your unique perspective or argument.
- Clarity: Because trying to avoid the first person can lead to awkward constructions and vagueness, using the first person can improve your writing style.
- Positioning yourself in the essay: In some projects, you need to explain how your research or ideas build on or depart from the work of others, in which case you’ll need to say “I,” “we,” “my,” or “our”; if you wish to claim some kind of authority on the topic, first person may help you do so.
Deciding whether “I” will help your style
Here is an example of how using the first person can make the writing clearer and more assertive:
In studying American popular culture of the 1980s, the question of to what degree materialism was a major characteristic of the cultural milieu was explored.
Better example using first person:
In our study of American popular culture of the 1980s, we explored the degree to which materialism characterized the cultural milieu.
The original example sounds less emphatic and direct than the revised version; using “I” allows the writers to avoid the convoluted construction of the original and clarifies who did what.
Here is an example in which alternatives to the first person would be more appropriate:
As I observed the communication styles of first-year Carolina women, I noticed frequent use of non-verbal cues.
A study of the communication styles of first-year Carolina women revealed frequent use of non-verbal cues.
In the original example, using the first person grounds the experience heavily in the writer’s subjective, individual perspective, but the writer’s purpose is to describe a phenomenon that is in fact objective or independent of that perspective. Avoiding the first person here creates the desired impression of an observed phenomenon that could be reproduced and also creates a stronger, clearer statement.
Here’s another example in which an alternative to first person works better:
As I was reading this study of medieval village life, I noticed that social class tended to be clearly defined.
This study of medieval village life reveals that social class tended to be clearly defined.
Although you may run across instructors who find the casual style of the original example refreshing, they are probably rare. The revised version sounds more academic and renders the statement more assertive and direct.
Here’s a final example:
I think that Aristotle’s ethical arguments are logical and readily applicable to contemporary cases, or at least it seems that way to me.
Aristotle’s ethical arguments are logical and readily applicable to contemporary cases.
In this example, there is no real need to announce that that statement about Aristotle is your thought; this is your paper, so readers will assume that the ideas in it are yours.
Determining whether to use “I” according to the conventions of the academic field
Which fields allow “I”?
The rules for this are changing, so it’s always best to ask your instructor if you’re not sure about using first person. But here are some general guidelines.
Sciences: In the past, scientific writers avoided the use of “I” because scientists often view the first person as interfering with the impression of objectivity and impersonality they are seeking to create. But conventions seem to be changing in some cases—for instance, when a scientific writer is describing a project she is working on or positioning that project within the existing research on the topic. Check with your science instructor to find out whether it’s o.k. to use “I” in his/her class.
Social Sciences: Some social scientists try to avoid “I” for the same reasons that other scientists do. But first person is becoming more commonly accepted, especially when the writer is describing his/her project or perspective.
Humanities: Ask your instructor whether you should use “I.” The purpose of writing in the humanities is generally to offer your own analysis of language, ideas, or a work of art. Writers in these fields tend to value assertiveness and to emphasize agency (who’s doing what), so the first person is often—but not always—appropriate. Sometimes writers use the first person in a less effective way, preceding an assertion with “I think,” “I feel,” or “I believe” as if such a phrase could replace a real defense of an argument. While your audience is generally interested in your perspective in the humanities fields, readers do expect you to fully argue, support, and illustrate your assertions. Personal belief or opinion is generally not sufficient in itself; you will need evidence of some kind to convince your reader.
Other writing situations: If you’re writing a speech, use of the first and even the second person (“you”) is generally encouraged because these personal pronouns can create a desirable sense of connection between speaker and listener and can contribute to the sense that the speaker is sincere and involved in the issue. If you’re writing a resume, though, avoid the first person; describe your experience, education, and skills without using a personal pronoun (for example, under “Experience” you might write “Volunteered as a peer counselor”).
A note on the second person “you”:
In situations where your intention is to sound conversational and friendly because it suits your purpose, as it does in this handout intended to offer helpful advice, or in a letter or speech, “you” might help to create just the sense of familiarity you’re after. But in most academic writing situations, “you” sounds overly conversational, as for instance in a claim like “when you read the poem ‘The Wasteland,’ you feel a sense of emptiness.” In this case, the “you” sounds overly conversational. The statement would read better as “The poem ‘The Wasteland’ creates a sense of emptiness.” Academic writers almost always use alternatives to the second person pronoun, such as “one,” “the reader,” or “people.”
Personal experience in academic writing
The question of whether personal experience has a place in academic writing depends on context and purpose. In papers that seek to analyze an objective principle or data as in science papers, or in papers for a field that explicitly tries to minimize the effect of the researcher’s presence such as anthropology, personal experience would probably distract from your purpose. But sometimes you might need to explicitly situate your position as researcher in relation to your subject of study. Or if your purpose is to present your individual response to a work of art, to offer examples of how an idea or theory might apply to life, or to use experience as evidence or a demonstration of an abstract principle, personal experience might have a legitimate role to play in your academic writing. Using personal experience effectively usually means keeping it in the service of your argument, as opposed to letting it become an end in itself or take over the paper.
It’s also usually best to keep your real or hypothetical stories brief, but they can strengthen arguments in need of concrete illustrations or even just a little more vitality.
Here are some examples of effective ways to incorporate personal experience in academic writing:
- Anecdotes: In some cases, brief examples of experiences you’ve had or witnessed may serve as useful illustrations of a point you’re arguing or a theory you’re evaluating. For instance, in philosophical arguments, writers often use a real or hypothetical situation to illustrate abstract ideas and principles.
- References to your own experience can explain your interest in an issue or even help to establish your authority on a topic.
- Some specific writing situations, such as application essays, explicitly call for discussion of personal experience.
Here are some suggestions about including personal experience in writing for specific fields:
Philosophy: In philosophical writing, your purpose is generally to reconstruct or evaluate an existing argument, and/or to generate your own. Sometimes, doing this effectively may involve offering a hypothetical example or an illustration. In these cases, you might find that inventing or recounting a scenario that you’ve experienced or witnessed could help demonstrate your point. Personal experience can play a very useful role in your philosophy papers, as long as you always explain to the reader how the experience is related to your argument. (See our handout on writing in philosophy for more information.)
Religion: Religion courses might seem like a place where personal experience would be welcomed. But most religion courses take a cultural, historical, or textual approach, and these generally require objectivity and impersonality. So although you probably have very strong beliefs or powerful experiences in this area that might motivate your interest in the field, they shouldn’t supplant scholarly analysis. But ask your instructor, as it is possible that he or she is interested in your personal experiences with religion, especially in less formal assignments such as response papers. (See our handout on writing in religious studies for more information.)
Literature, Music, Fine Arts, and Film: Writing projects in these fields can sometimes benefit from the inclusion of personal experience, as long as it isn’t tangential. For instance, your annoyance over your roommate’s habits might not add much to an analysis of “Citizen Kane.” However, if you’re writing about Ridley Scott’s treatment of relationships between women in the movie “Thelma and Louise,” some reference your own observations about these relationships might be relevant if it adds to your analysis of the film. Personal experience can be especially appropriate in a response paper, or in any kind of assignment that asks about your experience of the work as a reader or viewer. Some film and literature scholars are interested in how a film or literary text is received by different audiences, so a discussion of how a particular viewer or reader experiences or identifies with the piece would probably be appropriate. (See our handouts on writing about fiction, art history, and drama for more information.)
Women’s Studies: Women’s Studies classes tend to be taught from a feminist perspective, a perspective which is generally interested in the ways in which individuals experience gender roles. So personal experience can often serve as evidence for your analytical and argumentative papers in this field. This field is also one in which you might be asked to keep a journal, a kind of writing that requires you to apply theoretical concepts to your experiences.
History: If you’re analyzing a historical period or issue, personal experience is less likely to advance your purpose of objectivity. However, some kinds of historical scholarship do involve the exploration of personal histories. So although you might not be referencing your own experience, you might very well be discussing other people’s experiences as illustrations of their historical contexts. (See our handout on writing in history for more information.)
Sciences: Because the primary purpose is to study data and fixed principles in an objective way, personal experience is less likely to have a place in this kind of writing. Often, as in a lab report, your goal is to describe observations in such a way that a reader could duplicate the experiment, so the less extra information, the better. Of course, if you’re working in the social sciences, case studies—accounts of the personal experiences of other people—are a crucial part of your scholarship. (See our handout on writing in the sciences for more information.)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 License.
You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Can I use “I” in an essay?
Why is it unprofessional to use the first person in a formal essay?
I was writing an argumentative paper for my Language Arts AP class, and I got docked points for having “I” in there.
Can you please help me wrap my head around this logic?
It’s not necessarily unprofessional, it’s simply uncommon. If you got docked points for using the pronoun, but the rules of marking had not been explained beforehand, then you have a legitimate complaint. (Not that you’ll likely win any such argument . . .)
Arguably, I could write a formal essay that starts with, “When I was young, I remember . . . but today, its use is less common.” In such a context, my use of the pronoun seems reasonable to me—because it’s only my memory that I can be speaking about with authority. (I could replace I with my name or this author but both of those constructs seem even more awkward to me.) I think the point is, traditionally, not to use I casually.
@JasonBassford I think your statement is misleading. The actual case is that the rules have changed. At one time, use of the explicit first person was absolutely (if unofficially) forbidden in formal writing. Since then, the unwritten rules have greatly relaxed.
@ChrisSunami I was only talking about the current rules. I’m assuming that essays aren’t still being written in the past. 🙂
4 Answers 4
It’s often seen as too casual
Consider the following phrase:
As I stated earlier, Romeo & Juliet is a tragedy.
The use of “I” in this statement implies that the author has a connection to the reader and that it’s fairly casual. That’s not always the case. If you were writing that on your AP Language test, the test taker isn’t anybody who has met you.
Removing it takes away that implied personal connection.
As stated earlier, Romeo & Juliet is a tragedy.
It implies credibility that may not exist
The following statements have a different “feel” to them.
My name is William Shakespeare, author of the play. As I stated earlier, Romeo & Juliet is a tragedy.
My name is Michael Sexton, Director of the Public Shakespeare Initiative. As I stated earlier, Romeo & Juliet is a tragedy.
My name is Jay, an English student. As I stated earlier, Romeo & Juliet is a tragedy.
If the first two people wrote your essay, they could probably get away with using “I” because they have the credibility to back it up. But you as an English student don’t (yet). Removing “I” statements means the focus is no longer on yourself and your thoughts, but rather on the arguments to back it up.
Use of “I” often a symptom of underlying grammatical or presentational problems
Using the word “I” in and of itself can be very effective, but at the high school level, it’s often indicative of other problems.
Using a weak statement instead of an authoritative one
Consider the following phrase:
I conclude that Romeo and Juliet is a tragic story.
This is a weak statement. You might imagine it being followed with “but I could be wrong”. Removing that phrase is more authoritative.
Stating your opinion, rather than relying on sources
If you find yourself using the word “I”, it might mean that you are relying on your own research instead of that of others.
I conclude Romeo and Juliet is a tragic story.
If you were William Shakespeare, that would be enough because of your credibility. But you aren’t, meaning that this is just your unsourced opinion. The following phrase is better.
Dozens of literary critics have concluded that Romeo and Juliet as a tragic story. [citation]
Injecting feelings or subjectivity into intellectual, objective arguments
A lot of high schoolers use “I” in conjunction with feeling phrases.
I believe that Romeo and Juliet is a tragic story.
I think that Romeo and Juliet is a tragic story.
I would argue that Romeo and Juliet is a tragic story.
All of these are problematic because they rely on emotions and opinions, rather than facts, and they lack authority for that reason.
Turning an objective statement into a subjective one
As parodied by the webcomic XKCD, sometimes things are objectively true.
The Gateway Arch is the most recognizable arch in St. Louis.
Using an “I” statement can weaken that and make it subjective.
I believe that the Gateway Arch is the most recognizable arch in St. Louis.
If Romeo & Juliet meets the criteria of a tragedy, just say it. Chances are that “I” statements like “I conclude that. ” are going to weaken that argument and make it seem more subjective.
Granted, there are times where a statement should be subjective, but they are rarer in formal essays and there are other ways to express that without using the word “I”.
Finally, it doesn’t match with conventions used in many types of writing
The answer may boil down to “because other people don’t do it.”
Do your textbooks use the first person when describing concepts? Do newspaper articles (aside from opinion pieces) do it? Part of writing is following the conventions of the type you are using, because that’s what the user expects. As you may have noticed, Stack Exchange has conventions too, like not saying “Thanks! -Jay” at the end of your questions.
Part of the conventions of analytical academic writing is that the first person is rarely used. For instance, this article from the Journal of Palestine Studies examines media portrayal of Israelis and Palestinians in modern culture. Not once in the entire article does it use “I” or “we”. This is typical in the vast majority of academic articles I’ve read.
Those who say that you should stop using “I” because your teacher says so are probably alluding to this reason. The convention your teacher has established in his or her class is that formal essays do not use the word “I”. Hopefully, those conventions aren’t arbitrary and are reflective of real-world usage, but regardless, that’s the convention established. Going against it can be jarring to what your readers expect.